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Demyelination contributes to loss of function after spinal cord injury, and thus a potential therapeutic strategy involves replacing myelin-forming cells. Here, we show that transplantation of human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) into adult rat spinal cord injuries enhances remyelination and promotes improvement(More)
Elucidation of the response of oligodendrocyte progenitor cell populations to demyelination in the adult central nervous system (CNS) is critical to understanding why remyelination fails in multiple sclerosis. Using the anti-NG2 monoclonal antibody to identify oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, we have documented their response to antibody-induced(More)
Genomic stability is critical for the clinical use of human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells. We performed high-resolution SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism) analysis on 186 pluripotent and 119 nonpluripotent samples. We report a higher frequency of subchromosomal copy number variations in pluripotent samples compared to nonpluripotent(More)
The failure of regeneration of severed axons in the adult mammalian central nervous system is thought to be due partly to the presence of endogenous inhibitors of axon regeneration. The nogo gene encodes three proteins (Nogo-A, -B, and -C) that have been proposed to contribute to this inhibition. To determine whether deletion of nogo enhances regenerative(More)
In order to investigate the remyelinating potential of mature oligodendrocytes in vivo, we have developed a model of demyelination in the adult rat spinal cord in which some oligodendrocytes survive demyelination. A single intraspinal injection of complement proteins plus antibodies to galactocerebroside (the major myelin sphingolipid) resulted in(More)
Preceding the development of therapeutic strategies for spinal cord injury is an identification of those pathological processes that might serve as therapeutic targets. Although demyelination has been documented as a secondary degenerative component of spinal cord injury in several species including humans, the extent of demyelination and its functional(More)
Transplantation offers a means of identifying the differentiation and myelination potential of early neural precursors, features relevant to myelin regeneration in demyelinating diseases. In the postnatal rat brain, precursor cells expressing the polysialylated (PSA) form of the neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM have been shown to generate mostly(More)
In an embryonic chicken, transection of the thoracic spinal cord prior to embryonic day (E) 13 (of the 21-day developmental period) results in complete neuroanatomical repair and functional locomotor recovery. Conversely, repair rapidly diminishes following a transection on E13-E14 and is nonexistent after an E15 transection. The myelination of fiber tracts(More)
Injury to the spinal cord is followed by degeneration, which leads to progressive tissue loss and usually cystic cavitation. Cellular and humoral immune responses have been implicated as mediators of secondary degeneration, and the expression of leukocyte chemoattractants has been shown to precede immune cell influx. However, the relationship between the(More)
Transections of the chicken spinal cord after the developmental onset of myelination at embryonic day (E) 13 results in little or no functional regeneration. However, intraspinal injection of serum complement proteins with complement-binding GalC or 04 antibodies between E9-E12 results in a delay of the onset of myelination until E17. A subsequent(More)