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Adaptation to different levels of illumination is central to the function of the retina. Here, we demonstrate that levels of the miR-183/96/182 cluster, miR-204, and miR-211 are regulated by different light levels in the mouse retina. Concentrations of these microRNAs were downregulated during dark adaptation and upregulated in light-adapted retinas, with(More)
Lymphoid tissue-inducer (LTi) cells initiate the development of lymphoid tissues through the activation of local stromal cells in a process similar to inflammation. LTi cells express the nuclear hormone receptor RORγt, which also directs the expression of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-17 in T cells. We show here that LTi cells are part of a(More)
Haematopoietic and vascular cells are thought to arise from a common progenitor called the haemangioblast. Support for this concept has been provided by embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation studies that identified the blast colony-forming cell (BL-CFC), a progenitor with both haematopoietic and vascular potential. Using conditions that support the(More)
LMP2, LMP7, and MECL are interferon ␥ –inducible catalytic subunits of vertebrate 20S pro-teasomes, which can replace constitutive catalytic subunits (delta, X, and Z, respectively) during proteasome biogenesis. We demonstrate that MECL requires LMP2 for efficient incorporation into preproteasomes, and preproteasomes containing LMP2 and MECL require LMP7(More)
In T-cell precursors, the T-cell-receptor beta chain is expressed before the T-cell-receptor alpha chain and is sufficient to advance T-cell development in the absence of T-cell receptor alpha chains. In immature T cells, the T-cell-receptor beta protein can form disulphide-linked heterodimers with the pre-T-cell-receptor alpha chain and associate with(More)
Proteasomes degrade endogenous proteins. Two subunits, LMP-2 and LMP-7, are encoded in a region of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) that is critical for class I-restricted antigen presentation. Mice with a targeted deletion of the gene encoding LMP-7 have reduced levels of MHC class I cell-surface expression and present the endogenous antigen HY(More)
The transcription factor Foxp3 is essential for the development of regulatory T (Treg) cells, yet its expression is insufficient for establishing the Treg cell lineage. Here we showed that Treg cell development was achieved by the combination of two independent processes, i.e., the expression of Foxp3 and the establishment of Treg cell-specific CpG(More)
The human Mixed-Lineage-Leukemia-5 (MLL5) gene is located in a genomic region frequently deleted in patients with myeloid malignancies and encodes a widely expressed nuclear protein most closely related to MLL1, a Trithorax transcriptional regulator with established involvement in leukemogenesis. Although the physiologic function of MLL5 is completely(More)
C-reactive protein (CRP), a phylogenetically highly conserved plasma protein, is the classical acute phase reactant in humans. Upon infection, inflammation, or tissue damage, its plasma level can rise within hours >1000-fold, providing an early, nonspecific disease indicator of prime clinical importance. In recent years, another aspect of CRP expression has(More)
Brain circuits are assembled from a large variety of morphologically and functionally diverse cell types. It is not known how the intermingled cell types of an individual adult brain region differ in their expressed genomes. Here we describe an atlas of cell type transcriptomes in one brain region, the mouse retina. We found that each adult cell type(More)