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Adaptation to different levels of illumination is central to the function of the retina. Here, we demonstrate that levels of the miR-183/96/182 cluster, miR-204, and miR-211 are regulated by different light levels in the mouse retina. Concentrations of these microRNAs were downregulated during dark adaptation and upregulated in light-adapted retinas, with(More)
Lymphoid tissue-inducer (LTi) cells initiate the development of lymphoid tissues through the activation of local stromal cells in a process similar to inflammation. LTi cells express the nuclear hormone receptor RORγt, which also directs the expression of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-17 in T cells. We show here that LTi cells are part of a(More)
Haematopoietic and vascular cells are thought to arise from a common progenitor called the haemangioblast. Support for this concept has been provided by embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation studies that identified the blast colony-forming cell (BL-CFC), a progenitor with both haematopoietic and vascular potential. Using conditions that support the(More)
LMP2, LMP7, and MECL are interferon ␥ –inducible catalytic subunits of vertebrate 20S pro-teasomes, which can replace constitutive catalytic subunits (delta, X, and Z, respectively) during proteasome biogenesis. We demonstrate that MECL requires LMP2 for efficient incorporation into preproteasomes, and preproteasomes containing LMP2 and MECL require LMP7(More)
In T-cell precursors, the T-cell-receptor beta chain is expressed before the T-cell-receptor alpha chain and is sufficient to advance T-cell development in the absence of T-cell receptor alpha chains. In immature T cells, the T-cell-receptor beta protein can form disulphide-linked heterodimers with the pre-T-cell-receptor alpha chain and associate with(More)
C-reactive protein (CRP), a phylogenetically highly conserved plasma protein, is the classical acute phase reactant in humans. Upon infection, inflammation, or tissue damage, its plasma level can rise within hours >1000-fold, providing an early, nonspecific disease indicator of prime clinical importance. In recent years, another aspect of CRP expression has(More)
Brain circuits are assembled from a large variety of morphologically and functionally diverse cell types. It is not known how the intermingled cell types of an individual adult brain region differ in their expressed genomes. Here we describe an atlas of cell type transcriptomes in one brain region, the mouse retina. We found that each adult cell type(More)
The T cell antigen receptor (TCR) beta chain regulates early T cell development in the absence of the TCR alpha chain. The developmentally controlled gene described here encodes the pre-TCR alpha (pT alpha) chain, which covalently associates with TCR beta and with the CD3 proteins forms a pre-TCR complex that transduces signals in immature thymocytes.(More)
Proteasomes degrade endogenous proteins. Two subunits, LMP-2 and LMP-7, are encoded in a region of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) that is critical for class I-restricted antigen presentation. Mice with a targeted deletion of the gene encoding LMP-7 have reduced levels of MHC class I cell-surface expression and present the endogenous antigen HY(More)
The development of pre-T cells with productive TCR-beta rearrangements can be mediated by each the pre-T cell receptor (pre-TCR), the TCR-alphabeta as well as the TCR-gammadelta, albeit by distinct mechanisms. Although the TCR-gammadelta affects CD4-8- precursor cells irrespective of their rearrangement status by TCR-beta mechanisms not involving TCR-beta(More)