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BACKGROUND Norovirus infection is the most frequent cause of infectious diarrhoea in the western world. This study aimed to characterise functionally and histomorphologically the diseased duodenum in human biopsies. METHODS Norovirus infection was diagnosed by the Kaplan criteria and confirmed by PCR of stool samples. Duodenal biopsies were obtained(More)
BACKGROUND Giardia lamblia causes infection of the small intestine, which leads to malabsorption and chronic diarrhoea. AIM To characterise the inherent pathomechanisms of G lamblia infection. METHODS Duodenal biopsy specimens from 13 patients with chronic giardiasis and from controls were obtained endoscopically. Short-circuit current (I(SC)) and(More)
Recent evidence indicates that regulatory T cells (T(regs)) play an important role in HIV infection. However, although the gastrointestinal mucosa is a key compartment in HIV disease, no data on mucosal T(regs) in HIV infection are available. In this study, we compared the frequency of T(regs) in duodenal mucosa and peripheral blood (PB) of 13(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Impairment of the gastrointestinal mucosal barrier contributes to progression of HIV infection. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on the HIV-induced intestinal barrier defect and to identify underlying mechanisms. METHODS Epithelial barrier function was characterised(More)
Cytokines are supposed to be mediators in diarrhoeal diseases. The aim of this study is to characterize the effect of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) on epithelial barrier function in the colonic epithelial cell line HT-29/B6. Active ion transport and barrier function were measured as short-circuit current and transepithelial electrical resistance(More)
BACKGROUND Mucosal macrophages are involved in the maintenance of epithelial barrier integrity and the elimination of invading pathogens. Although an intestinal barrier defect and microbial translocation are hallmarks of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, recent data on gut mucosal macrophages in HIV infection are sparse. METHODS(More)
Cholinergic stimulation triggers the secretion of apically stored, preformed mucin from goblet cells but the pathway of cAMP-stimulated mucin secretion is not known. In this study the effect of cholera toxin on mucin secretion in the human colonic goblet cell line HT-29/B6 was investigated and compared to the action of carbachol. PAS staining of mucin(More)
In vivo electrogenic Na+ absorption (JeNa) in the human rectum is controlled by acute variation of aldosterone in nanomolar concentration range. In this study we report both the induction of JeNa in human rectum epithelium by nanomolar aldosterone added in vitro and the enzymatic control of glucocorticoid action on JeNa. JeNa was measured as(More)
BACKGROUND Aeromonads cause a variety of infections, including gastroenteritis, sepsis, and wound necrosis. Pathogenesis of Aeromonas hydrophila and its hemolysin has been characterized, but the mechanism of the epithelial barrier dysfunction is currently poorly understood. METHODS Human colon epithelial monolayers HT-29/B6 were apically inoculated with(More)