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The reaction of lysine and arginine residues of proteins with 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds result in the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Accumulation of AGEs is a characteristic feature of the aging brain and contributes to the development of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, it is of particular(More)
Various isoforms of the nitric oxide (NO) producing enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS) are elevated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) indicating a critical role for NO in the pathomechanism. NO can react with superoxide to generate peroxynitrite, a process referred to as oxidative stress, which is likely to play a role in AD. Peroxynitrite in turn, nitrates(More)
In this immunohistochemical study, the age- and stage-dependent accumulation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and their relation to the formation of neurofibrillary tangles and neuronal cell death was investigated. For this purpose, the distribution of AGEs in neurons and glia was analyzed in the auditory association(More)
In Alzheimer's disease (AD), in aging, and under conditions of oxidative stress, the levels of reactive carbonyl compounds continuously increase. Accumulating carbonyl levels might be caused by an impaired enzymatic detoxification system. The major dicarbonyl detoxifying system is the glyoxalase system, which removes methylglyoxal in order to minimize(More)
Cholinergic dysfunction is a consistent feature of Alzheimer's disease, and the interrelationship between beta-amyloid deposits, inflammation and early cholinergic cell loss is still not fully understood. To characterize the mechanisms by which beta-amyloid and pro-inflammatory cytokines may exert specific degenerating actions on cholinergic cells(More)
Antibodies against advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) are used for their immunohistological localization in tissues, for example in Alzheimer's disease (AD) or diabetes. Many monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies have been used, and their specificity is unknown in most cases. Increased radical production, leading to the formation of lipid-derived reactive(More)
Increased modification and crosslinking of proteins by advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is a characteristic feature of aging, and contributes to the formation of many of the lesions of neurodegenerative diseases including neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, defense mechanisms against AGE formation or(More)
There is a remarkable discrepancy between biochemical and cell morphological findings with regard to the presence of NADPH diaphorase/neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the primate septal area. Whereas considerable concentrations of neuronal nitric oxide synthase and high enzyme activities have been measured in postmortem human septal nuclei,(More)
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