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Human visual cortex was studied using NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry and nitric oxide synthase immunohistochemistry. Large, strongly stained, sparsely spined non-pyramidal cells (average soma diameter: 16 x 16 microns) occur in layers II-VI, but are commonest in layers II-III. Small weakly stained multipolar cells (average soma diameter 3.6 x 4 microns,(More)
The reaction of lysine and arginine residues of proteins with 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds result in the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Accumulation of AGEs is a characteristic feature of the aging brain and contributes to the development of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, it is of particular(More)
Aberrancies of growth and proliferation-regulating mechanisms might be critically involved in the processes of neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Expression of p21ras and further downstream signalling elements involved in regulation of proliferation and differentiation as, for example, MEK, ERK1/2, cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases and their(More)
Various isoforms of the nitric oxide (NO) producing enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS) are elevated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) indicating a critical role for NO in the pathomechanism. NO can react with superoxide to generate peroxynitrite, a process referred to as oxidative stress, which is likely to play a role in AD. Peroxynitrite in turn, nitrates(More)
In this immunohistochemical study, the age- and stage-dependent accumulation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and their relation to the formation of neurofibrillary tangles and neuronal cell death was investigated. For this purpose, the distribution of AGEs in neurons and glia was analyzed in the auditory association(More)
The localization of parvalbumin, calbindin D-28k and calretinin have been investigated in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (d lgn) of the rat at the light and electron microscopical level. Parvalbumin and calretinin positive sites are restricted to nerve fibres, whereas calbindin is present in fibres as well as in nerve cells showing morphological(More)
The nitric oxide-synthesizing enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is present in the mammalian brain in three different isoforms, two constitutive enzymes (i.e., neuronal, nNOS, and endothelial eNOS) and one inducible enzyme (iNOS). All three isoforms are aberrantly expressed in Alzheimer's disease giving rise to elevated levels of nitric oxide apparently(More)
In Alzheimer's disease (AD), in aging, and under conditions of oxidative stress, the levels of reactive carbonyl compounds continuously increase. Accumulating carbonyl levels might be caused by an impaired enzymatic detoxification system. The major dicarbonyl detoxifying system is the glyoxalase system, which removes methylglyoxal in order to minimize(More)
Neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with the appearance of dystrophic neuronal growth profiles that most likely reflect an impairment of neuronal reorganization. This process of morphodysregulation, which eventually goes awry and becomes a disease itself, might be triggered either by a variety of life events that place an additional(More)