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BACKGROUND Diabetes confers an increased risk of adverse cardiovascular and renal events. In the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial, empagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, reduced the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes at high risk for cardiovascular events. We wanted to determine the long-term renal effects(More)
BACKGROUND The effects of empagliflozin, an inhibitor of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2, in addition to standard care, on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular risk are not known. METHODS We randomly assigned patients to receive 10 mg or 25 mg of empagliflozin or placebo once daily. The primary(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare the pathophysiology of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in a more comprehensive and standardized fashion than has hitherto been done. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We studied 21 individuals with isolated IFG (IFG/normal glucose tolerance [NGT]), 61 individuals with isolated IGT (normal fasting glucose(More)
BACKGROUND The primary objective of this mechanistic open-label, stratified clinical trial was to determine the effect of 8 weeks' sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition with empagliflozin 25 mg QD on renal hyperfiltration in subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). METHODS AND RESULTS Inulin (glomerular filtration rate; GFR) and(More)
BACKGROUND Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors lower glycemia by enhancing urinary glucose excretion. The physiologic response to pharmacologically induced acute or chronic glycosuria has not been investigated in human diabetes. METHODS We evaluated 66 patients with type 2 diabetes (62 ± 7 years, BMI = 31.6 ± 4.6 kg/m(2), HbA1c = 55 ± 8(More)
Sulphonylureas (SUs) are widely used glucose-lowering agents in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with apparent declining efficacy over time. Concerns have been raised from observational retrospective studies on the cardiovascular (CV) safety of SUs but there are few long-term data on CV outcomes from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving the use of(More)
BACKGROUND Diabetes is a leading cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD) worldwide. Optimum glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes is important to minimise the risk of microvascular and macrovascular complications and to slow the progression of CKD. We assessed the efficacy and safety of empagliflozin as an add-on treatment in patients with type 2(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the efficacy and tolerability of empagliflozin as add-on to metformin and sulfonylurea in patients with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Patients inadequately controlled on metformin and sulfonylurea (HbA1c ≥7 to ≤10%) were randomized and treated with once-daily empagliflozin 10 mg (n = 225), empagliflozin 25 mg (n =(More)
BACKGROUND Addition of a sulphonylurea to metformin improves glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes, but is associated with hypoglycaemia and weight gain. We aimed to compare a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (linagliptin) against a commonly used sulphonylurea (glimepiride). METHODS In this 2-year, parallel-group, non-inferiority double-blind trial,(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the efficacy and tolerability of empagliflozin as an add-on to metformin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Patients with HbA1c levels of ≥7% to ≤ 10% (≥53 to ≤86 mmol/mol) while receiving metformin (≥1,500 mg/day) were randomized and treated with once-daily treatment with empagliflozin 10 mg (n(More)