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We propose a minimal model for aeolian sand dunes. It combines an analytical description of the turbulent wind velocity field above the dune with a continuum saltation model that allows for saturation transients in the sand flux. The model provides a qualitative understanding of important features of real dunes, such as their longitudinal shape and aspect(More)
Vegetation is the most common and most reliable stabilizer of loose soil or sand. This ancient technique is for the first time cast into a set of equations of motion describing the competition between aeolian sand transport and vegetation growth. Our set of equations is then applied to study quantitatively the transition between barchans and parabolic dunes(More)
Terrorist attacks on transportation networks have traumatized modern societies. With a single blast, it has become possible to paralyze airline traffic, electric power supply, ground transportation or Internet communication. How and at which cost can one restructure the network such that it will become more robust against a malicious attack? We introduce a(More)
Transverse dunes appear in regions of mainly unidirectional wind and high sand availability. A dune model is extended to two dimensional calculation of the shear stress. It is applied to simulate dynamics and morphology of transverse dunes which seem to reach lateral invariance and do not stop growing. Hence, simulations of two dimensional dune fields have(More)
We investigate the clustering coefficient in bipartite networks where cycles of size three are absent and therefore the standard definition of clustering coefficient cannot be used. Instead, we use another coefficient given by the fraction of cycles with size four, showing that both coefficients yield the same clustering properties. The new coefficient is(More)
Barchans are dunes of high mobility which have a crescent shape and propagate under conditions of unidirectional wind. However, sand dunes only appear above a critical size, which scales with the saturation distance of the sand flux [P. Hersen, S. Douady, and B. Andreotti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 264301 (2002); B. Andreotti, P. Claudin, and S. Douady, Eur.(More)
The changes in color of sand dunes from white to yellow or red is often interpreted to signify their age or their source materials. In this study we demonstrate the effect seasonal inter-dune freshwater ponds have on the bleaching of the color of sand dunes by iron reduction in the anaerobic conditions they create. By combining spectral measurements of(More)
Networks of living neurons exhibit an avalanche mode of activity, experimentally found in organotypic cultures. Here we present a model that is based on self-organized criticality and takes into account brain plasticity, which is able to reproduce the spectrum of electroencephalograms (EEG). The model consists of an electrical network with threshold firing(More)