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Toxic and genotoxic effects of alachlor, metolachlor, amitraz, chlordimeform, their respective environmentally stable degradation products 2,6-diethylaniline, 2-ethyl-4-methylaniline, 2,4-dimethylaniline, and two other related compounds, 3,4-dichloroaniline and aniline were compared. Acute toxicity tests with Chironomus riparius (96 h) and Vibrio fischeri(More)
Chemical and toxicological profiles were assessed in surface sediments (fraction <63 microm) from the southern North Sea. In extracts of freeze-dried samples, polybrominated biphenyl (PBB), Irgarol 1051 and phthalate concentrations were below the respective detection limits (except di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, which was between 170 and 3300 microg kg(-1) dry(More)
Interpretation of toxicity test results may be hampered when doubt exists about the actual exposure concentration. Processes that are responsible for differences between the nominal and the actual concentration in aqueous test systems may include sorption, precipitation, volatilization, chemical and biological degradation, and uptake into biological or test(More)
BACKGROUND Extensive monitoring programs on chemical contamination are run in many European river basins. With respect to the implementation of the European Union (EU) Water Framework Directive (WFD), these programs are increasingly accompanied by monitoring the ecological status of the river basins. Assuming an impact of chemical contamination on the(More)
The factors determining the bioaccumulation of lipophilic compounds in wildlife are often poorly understood, partly because it is difficult to do in vivo experiments with animals such as marine mammals and birds. To evaluate the role of phase I biotransformation in the bioaccumulation process of chlorobornanes (toxaphene), this was studied in in vitro(More)
The application of bioassays to assess the occurrence of estrogenic compounds in the environment is increasing in both a scientific and statutory context. The availability of appropriate validated methods for sample pre-treatment and analysis is crucial for the successful implementation of bioassays. Here, we present a sample preparation method for the(More)
In the Fourth National Policy Document on Water Management in The Netherlands, it is defined that in 2003, in addition to the assessment of chemical substances, special guidelines for the assessment of dredged material should be recorded. The assessment of dredged material is based on integrated chemical and biological effect measurements. Among others, the(More)
Some sediment toxicity tests, such as the Microtox test, are conducted by diluting either contaminated sediment or an aqueous phase with clean water. The present study aims to clarify how the dilution procedure affects the exposure of organisms. It is shown that freely dissolved concentrations of hydrophobic compounds are buffered by desorption from the(More)
In bioassays, exposure concentrations of test compounds are usually expressed as nominal concentrations. As a result of various processes, such as adsorption, degradation, or uptake, the actual freely dissolved concentration of the test compound may differ from the nominal concentration. The goal of the present study was to develop a method to dose(More)