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fMRI and EEG are complimentary methods for the analysis of brain activity since each method has its strength where the other one has limits: The spatial resolution is thus in the range of millimeters with fMRI and the time resolution is in the range of milliseconds with EEG. For a comprehensive understanding of brain activity in target detection, nine(More)
Prefrontal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) with the anode placed on the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has been reported to enhance working memory in healthy subjects and to improve mood in major depression. However, its putative antidepressant, cognitive and behavior action is not well understood. Here, we evaluated the(More)
Reduced fecundity, associated with severe mental disorders, places negative selection pressure on risk alleles and may explain, in part, why common variants have not been found that confer risk of disorders such as autism, schizophrenia and mental retardation. Thus, rare variants may account for a larger fraction of the overall genetic risk than previously(More)
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been proposed for experimental and therapeutic modulation of regional brain function. Specifically, anodal tDCS of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) together with cathodal tDCS of the supraorbital region have been associated with improvement of cognition and mood, and have been suggested for the(More)
Left-right asymmetrical brain function underlies much of human cognition, behavior and emotion. Abnormalities of cerebral asymmetry are associated with schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders. The molecular, developmental and evolutionary origins of human brain asymmetry are unknown. We found significant association of a haplotype upstream of the(More)
Schizophrenia is a complex disorder, caused by both genetic and environmental factors and their interactions. Research on pathogenesis has traditionally focused on neurotransmitter systems in the brain, particularly those involving dopamine. Schizophrenia has been considered a separate disease for over a century, but in the absence of clear biological(More)
Subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are at a high risk of developing clinical Alzheimer's disease (AD). We asked to what extent the core biomarker candidates cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) beta-amyloid(1-42) (Abeta(1-42)) and CSF tau protein concentrations predict conversion from MCI to AD. We studied 52 patients with MCI, 93 AD patients, and 10(More)
In previous studies, fast repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) with a frequency > 1 Hz demonstrated substantial antidepressant effects compared to sham rTMS. However, it is not clear whether fast rTMS is superior to slow rTMS (frequency < or = 1 Hz) which is safe at therapeutically promising higher intensities. The aim of this double-blind(More)
Signs of an inflammatory process, in particular increased pro-inflammatory cytokines and increased levels of prostaglandine E(2) (PGE(2)), have repeatedly been described in major depression (MD). As cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors inhibit the PGE(2) production and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, we performed a therapeutic trial with the(More)
The methods of assessing the clinical relevance of a significant difference between antidepressants and placebo are discussed. The commonly used criteria of treatment effect and responder rates, as well as the percentage difference in responders between antidepressant and placebo, are critically reviewed and applied to assess the clinical relevance of the(More)