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Modern stereological methods provide precise and reliable estimates of the number of neurons in specific regions of the brain. We decided to estimate the total number of neocortical neurons in the normal human brain and to analyze it with respect to the major macro- and microscopical structural components, to study the internal relationships of these(More)
Neurostereology has been applied to quantitative anatomical study of the human brain. Such studies have included the total neocortical number of neurons and glial cells, the estimated size distribution of neocortical neurons, the total myelinated fiber length in the brain white matter, the total number of synapses in the neocortex, and the effect of normal(More)
Cerebella from 19 normal Caucasian males, ages 19-84 years, were studied using stereological methods. Cerebellum was divided into four different regions: the anterior and posterior lobe, the vermis, and the flocculonodular lobe. Total volume of the cerebellar cortex and white matter, cerebellar surface area, total Purkinje and granule cell number, and the(More)
In the present pilot study, age-related white matter changes were investigated by the use of design-based stereological methods. In the brains of elderly subjects, the total volume of the white matter and the total volume of the myelinated fibers therein were lower than in those of young subjects (15% and 17%, respectively), but the differences were not(More)
An estimator of the total number of synapses in neocortex of human autopsy brains based on unbiased stereological principles is described. Each randomly chosen cerebral hemisphere was stratified into the four major neocortical regions. Uniform sampling with a varying sampling fraction in each region of neocortex was performed. The total volume of each(More)
This paper is a review of the stereological problems related to the unbiased estimation of particle number and size when tissue deformation is present. The deformation may occur during the histological processing of the tissue. It is especially noted that the widely used optical disector may be biased by dimensional changes in the z-axis, i.e. the direction(More)
The nucleator allows the unbiased estimation of absolute structural quantities of suitably sampled, arbitrarily shaped structures from observations made from arbitrary points using isotropic probes. A number of time-saving modifications using the nucleator and the consequences of the modifications are studied in terms of their bias and efficiency. Using rat(More)
Using an unbiased stereological technique, the total numbers of pigmented and non-pigmented neurons were estimated in the substantia nigra of seven patients with Parkinson's disease and seven control patients. Compared with the controls, in which the average total number of pigmented neurons was 550,000, the number of neurons was reduced by 66% in the(More)
Unbiased estimates of the total number of neurons and glial cells from central regions of grey matter in human brains are obtained using the disector principle in modifications which are unaffected by the histological processing of paraffin-embedded tissue. Section thickness does not enter into the estimator and need not be known. An analysis of the(More)
Using a new stereological technique, the total number of nerve and glia cells can be estimated in selected brain regions. The method is completely independent of precise knowledge of nerve cell size, section thickness and of dimensional changes in brain tissue induced by histological procedures. It therefore provides an unbiased estimate of total nerve cell(More)