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A stereological method for obtaining estimates of the total number of neurons in five major subdivisions of the rat hippocampus is described. The new method, the optical fractionator, combines two recent developments in stereology: a three-dimensional probe for counting neuronal nuclei, the optical disector, and a systematic uniform sampling scheme, the(More)
The superior efficiency of systematic sampling at all levels in stereological studies is emphasized and various commonly used ways of implementing it are briefly described. Summarizing recent theoretical and experimental studies a set of very simple estimators of efficiency are presented and illustrated with a variety of biological examples. In particular,(More)
Modern stereological methods provide precise and reliable estimates of the number of neurons in specific regions of the brain. We decided to estimate the total number of neocortical neurons in the normal human brain and to analyze it with respect to the major macro- and microscopical structural components, to study the internal relationships of these(More)
In the present paper, we summarize and further develop recent reseach in the estimation of the variance of sterelogical estimators based on systematic sampling. In particular, it is emphasized that the relevant estimation procedure depends on the sampling density. The validity of the variance estimation is examined in a collection of data sets, obtained by(More)
The new stereological methods for correct and efficient sampling and sizing of cells and other particles are reviewed. There is a hierarchy of methods starting from the simplest where even the microscopic magnification may be unknown to the most complex where typically both section thickness and the magnification must be known. Optical sections in suitably(More)
Stereology is a set of simple and efficient methods for quantitation of three-dimensional microscopic structures which is specifically tuned to provide reliable data from sections. Within the last few years, a number of new methods has been developed which are of special interest to pathologists. Methods for estimating the volume, surface area and length of(More)
The total numbers of neurons in five subdivisions of human hippocampi were estimated using unbiased stereological principles and systematic sampling techniques. The method addresses the problems associated with the results and conclusions of previous quantitative studies, virtually all of which have been based on biased estimates of neuron densities. For(More)
Cerebella from 19 normal Caucasian males, ages 19-84 years, were studied using stereological methods. Cerebellum was divided into four different regions: the anterior and posterior lobe, the vermis, and the flocculonodular lobe. Total volume of the cerebellar cortex and white matter, cerebellar surface area, total Purkinje and granule cell number, and the(More)
Neurostereology has been applied to quantitative anatomical study of the human brain. Such studies have included the total neocortical number of neurons and glial cells, the estimated size distribution of neocortical neurons, the total myelinated fiber length in the brain white matter, the total number of synapses in the neocortex, and the effect of normal(More)
In the present pilot study, age-related white matter changes were investigated by the use of design-based stereological methods. In the brains of elderly subjects, the total volume of the white matter and the total volume of the myelinated fibers therein were lower than in those of young subjects (15% and 17%, respectively), but the differences were not(More)