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Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a neurotrophic polypeptide, distantly related to transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), originally isolated by virtue of its ability to induce dopamine uptake and cell survival in cultures of embryonic ventral midbrain dopaminergic neurons, and more recently shown to be a potent neurotrophic factor(More)
Short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDR) constitute a large protein family. Presently, at least 57 characterized, highly different enzymes belong to this family and typically exhibit residue identities only at the 15-30% level, indicating early duplicatory origins and extensive divergence. In addition, another family of 22 enzymes with extended protein(More)
GPCR135, publicly known as somatostatin- and angiotensin-like peptide receptor, is expressed in the central nervous system and its cognate ligand(s) has not been identified. We have found that both rat and porcine brain extracts stimulated 35S-labeled guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (GTPgammaS) incorporation in cells over-expressing GPCR135. Multiple(More)
Nodal proteins have crucial roles in mesendoderm formation and left-right patterning during vertebrate development. The molecular mechanisms of signal transduction by Nodal and related ligands, however, are not fully understood. In this paper, we present biochemical and functional evidence that the orphan type I serine/threonine kinase receptor ALK7 acts as(More)
Two major forms of hepatic microsomal cytochrome P-450 were purified from starved and acetone-treated rats. On the basis of amino acid sequence analysis, they were identified as P-450j and P-450b. Ethanol or acetone treatment of rats caused a 9-fold increase in the amount of P-450j in liver microsomes accompanied by similar increases in the rate of(More)
The isolation of a novel biologically active peptide, designated galanin, is described. The peptide was discovered by the detection of its C-terminal amide structure in porcine intestinal extract using a chemical method. It was found that galanin consists of 29 amino acids and the complete amino acid sequence is:(More)
The conversion of cholesterol into bile acids in the liver represents the major catabolic pathway for the removal of cholesterol from the body. In this complex biosynthetic pathway, at least 10 enzymes modify both the ring structure and side chain of cholesterol, resulting in the formation of the primary bile acids, cholic acid, and chenodeoxycholic acid.(More)
Monoclonal antibodies that specifically recognize caspase cleaved K18 fragments or specific (phospho)epitopes on intact K8 and K18 were used for a detailed investigation of the temporal and causal relationship of proteolysis and phosphorylation in the collapse of the keratin cytoskeleton during apoptosis. Caspases involved in the specific proteolysis of(More)
A glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase (class III alcohol dehydrogenase) has been characterized from Arabidopsis thaliana. This plant enzyme exhibits kinetic and molecular properties in common with the class III forms from mammals, with a K(m) for S-hydroxymethylglutathione of 1.4 microM, an anodic electrophoretic mobility (pI: 5.3-5.6) and a(More)
Pig small intestine was used as starting material for a batchwise isolation of a peptide fraction enriched in antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli (anti-Ec factor) and against Bacillus megaterium (anti-Bm factor). Separation and further purification were by different types of chromatography. Sequence analysis showed the anti-Bm factor to be(More)