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Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection causes chronic liver diseases and is a global public health problem. Detailed analyses of HCV have been hampered by the lack of viral culture systems. Subgenomic replicons of the JFH1 genotype 2a strain cloned from an individual with fulminant hepatitis replicate efficiently in cell culture. Here we show that the JFH1(More)
HIV release requires TSG101, a cellular factor that sorts proteins into vesicles that bud into multivesicular bodies (MVB). To test whether other proteins involved in MVB biogenesis (the class E proteins) also participate in HIV release, we identified 22 candidate human class E proteins. These proteins were connected into a coherent network by 43 different(More)
Picornavirus RNAs are uncapped messengers and have unusually long 5' nontranslated regions (5'NTRs) which contain many noninitiating AUG triplets. The translational efficiency of different picornavirus RNAs varies between different cell-free extracts and even in the same extract, such as micrococcal nuclease-treated rabbit reticulocyte lysates. The effect(More)
Infectious HIV particles contain a characteristic cone-shaped core encasing the viral RNA and replication proteins. The core exhibits significant heterogeneity in size and shape, yet consistently forms a well-defined structure. The mechanism by which the core is assembled in the maturing virion remains poorly understood. Using cryo-electron tomography, we(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) assembly proceeds in two stages. First, the 55 kilodalton viral Gag polyprotein assembles into a hexameric protein lattice at the plasma membrane of the infected cell, inducing budding and release of an immature particle. Second, Gag is cleaved by the viral protease, leading to internal rearrangement of the virus(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is a retrovirus that obtains its lipid envelope by budding through the plasma membrane of infected host cells. Various studies indicated that the HIV-1 membrane differs from the producer cell plasma membrane suggesting virus budding from pre-existing subdomains or virus-mediated induction of a specialized budding(More)
The lipids of enveloped viruses play critical roles in viral morphogenesis and infectivity. They are derived from the host membranes from which virus budding occurs, but the precise lipid composition has not been determined for any virus. Employing mass spectrometry, this study provides a quantitative analysis of the lipid constituents of HIV and a(More)
Mature, infectious HIV-1 particles contain a characteristic cone-shaped core that encases the viral RNA and replication proteins. The architectures of mature virions and isolated cores were studied using cryo-electron microscopy. The average size ( approximately 145 nm) of the virion was unchanged during maturation. Most virions contained a single core but(More)
A tetracycline-regulated gene expression system and a panel of novel monoclonal antibodies were used to examine the subcellular localization, stability, and trans-cleavage competence of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3-NS4A complex in inducible cell lines. The NS3 serine protease domain and the full-length NS3 protein expressed in the absence of the NS4A(More)
A defining property of retroviruses is their ability to assemble into particles that can leave producer cells and spread infection to susceptible cells and hosts. Virion morphogenesis can be divided into three stages: assembly, wherein the virion is created and essential components are packaged; budding, wherein the virion crosses the plasma membrane and(More)