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Negative effects of prey species on consumers could be due to deterrence, nutritional insufficiency, or toxicity of the prey. These effects can be discerned in experiments in which the suspect prey is offered to the consumers in a food mixture containing another prey item that is not toxic and in which the ingestion rates on the prey and the grazers'(More)
Global warming has been shown to strongly influence inland water systems, producing noticeable increases in water temperatures. Rising temperatures, especially when combined with widespread nutrient pollution, directly favour the growth of toxic cyanobacteria. Climate changes have also altered natural water level fluctuations increasing the probability of(More)
Predicting the response of the biota to global change remains a formidable endeavor. Zooplankton face challenges related to global warming, ocean acidification, the proliferation of toxic algal blooms, and increasing pollution, eutrophication, and hypoxia. They can respond to these changes by phenotypic plasticity or genetic adaptation. Using the concept of(More)
In addition to an increase in mean temperature, climate change models predict decreasing amplitudes of daily temperature fluctuations. In temperate regions, where daily and seasonal fluctuations are prominent, such decreases in daily temperature fluctuations can have a pronounced effect on the fitness of species and on the outcome of species interactions.(More)
Recent studies in the central equatorial Pacific allow a comprehensive assessment of phytoplankton regulation in a high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll (HNLC) ecosystem. Elemental iron enters the euphotic zone principally via upwelling and is present at concentrations (530 PM) well below the estimated half-saturation constant (120 PM) for the large cells that(More)
Diatoms dominate spring bloom phytoplankton assemblages in temperate waters and coastal upwelling regions of the global ocean. Copepods usually dominate the zooplankton in these regions and are the prey of many larval fish species. Recent laboratory studies suggest that diatoms may have a deleterious effect on the success of copepod egg hatching. These(More)
This study considers variability in phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacterial abundances and production rates, in one of the most oligotrophic marine regions in the world-the Levantine Basin. The temporal dynamics of these planktonic groups were studied in the coastal waters of the southeastern Mediterranean Sea approximately every two weeks for a total of(More)
In this study we hypothesized that the sexes of the copepod Acartia hudsonica experience different mortalities when exposed to the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense. In laboratory experiments, we manipulated toxin dose and measured sex-specific mortality. We also used a split-family design to determine whether there were genetic influences on sex(More)
Some species in the dinoflagellate genus Alexandrium spp. produce a suite of neurotoxins that block sodium channels, known as paralytic shellfish toxins (PST), which have deleterious effects on grazers. Populations of the ubiquitous copepod grazer Acartia hudsonica that have co-occurred with toxic Alexandrium spp. are better adapted than naïve populations.(More)
To evaluate the thermal resistance of marine invertebrates to elevated temperatures under scenarios of future climate change, it is crucial to understand parental effect of long acclimatization on thermal tolerance of offspring. To test whether there is parental effect of long acclimatization, adult sea cucumbers (Apostichopus japonicus) from the same(More)