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OBJECTIVES A project was initiated by the Health Care Office of the European Association of Urology in order to formulate common recommendations and guidelines for the treatment of patients with urolithiasis. The basic task for the working group therefore was to extract and evaluate evidence from the literature in order to reach a consensus on how these(More)
In order to reflect the risk of calcium stone formation, risk formulas have been described in the literature with the objective of being able to predict the further course of the stone disease. Some of these formulas are reviewed in this paper. Various results were obtained when different risk expressions were related to the severity of the stone disease.(More)
CONTEXT Medical expulsive therapy (MET) for urolithiasis has gained increasing attention in the last years. It has been suggested that the administration of alpha-adrenoreceptor antagonists (alpha-blockers) or calcium channel blockers augments stone expulsion rates and reduces colic events. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy and safety of MET with(More)
A previously formulated simplified estimate of the ion activity product of calcium oxalate, AP(CaOx) index, was modified in order to better correspond numerically to the ion activity product obtained by computed iterative approximation with the EQUIL 2 program. The new index, AP(CaOx) index EQ, was given the following form for a 4-hour urine: 1.9 x Ca(0.84)(More)
  • H G Tiselius
  • 1982
By means of a computerized calculation program, a simplified estimate of the ion-activity product of calcium oxalate was derived (AP(CaOx)-index), based on the 24-h urinary excretion of calcium (Ca), oxalate (Ox), magnesium (Mg), citrate (Cit) and the urine volume (V): (formula: see text) With urinary electrolyte values within the normal range, there was a(More)
A computerized program was used to calculate the activities of the calcium, phosphate, and hydrogen phosphate ions. The most important determinants for ion-activity products of calcium phosphate and brushite were calcium, phosphate, citrate, urine volume, and pH. These urine variables were used to derive indices corresponding to ion-activity products of(More)
Recurrent stone formation in the urinary tract is a common and important problem that must be considered in daily urological practice. With a prevalence of> 10% and an expected recurrence rate of approximately 50%, stone disease has an important effect on the healthcare system. It is generally agreed that patients with uric acid/urate, cystine or infection(More)
The effect of macromolecules on the crystallization in solutions with an ion-composition and a pH corresponding to that of urine in the distal part of the distal tubuli was examined by recording the number and volume of crystals in a Coulter Multisizer and by studying the crystal morphology with scanning electron microscopy at different degrees of(More)