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The crystal structure of thioredoxin from Escherichia coli has been refined by the stereochemically restrained least-squares procedure to a crystallographic R-factor of 0.165 at 1.68 A resolution. In the final model, the root-mean-square deviation from ideality for bond distances is 0.015 A and for angle distances 0.035 A. The structure contains 1644(More)
BACKGROUND Pseudomonas sp. NCIB 9816-4 utilizes a multicomponent enzyme system to oxidize naphthalene to (+)-cis-(1R,2S)-dihydroxy-1,2-dihydronaphthalene. The enzyme component catalyzing this reaction, naphthalene 1,2-dioxygenase (NDO), belongs to a family of aromatic-ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases that oxidize aromatic hydrocarbons and related compounds(More)
Light generates reducing equivalents in chloroplasts that are used not only for carbon reduction, but also for the regulation of the activity of chloroplast enzymes by reduction of regulatory disulfides via the ferredoxin:thioredoxin reductase (FTR) system. FTR, the key electron/thiol transducer enzyme in this pathway, is unique in that it can reduce(More)
Deoxyribonucleoside kinases phosphorylate deoxyribonucleosides and activate a number of medically important nucleoside analogs. Here we report the structure of the Drosophila deoxyribonucleoside kinase with deoxycytidine bound at the nucleoside binding site and that of the human deoxyguanosine kinase with ATP at the nucleoside substrate binding site.(More)
Deoxyribonucleoside kinases phosphorylate deoxyribonucleosides, a crucial reaction in biosynthesis of DNA precursors through the salvage pathway. Their medical interest stems from their activation of a number of anticancer and antiviral drugs such as 2-chloro-2'-deoxyadenosine, azidothymidine and acyclovir. Here we review what is presently known about each(More)
The three-dimensional structure of four malate dehydrogenases (MDH) from thermophilic and mesophilic phototropic bacteria have been determined by X-ray crystallography and the corresponding structures compared. In contrast to the dimeric quaternary structure of most MDHs, these MDHs are tetramers and are structurally related to tetrameric malate(More)
Nitroaromatic compounds are used extensively in many industrial processes and have been released into the environment where they are considered environmental pollutants. Nitroaromatic compounds, in general, are resistant to oxidative attack due to the electron-withdrawing nature of the nitro groups and the stability of the benzene ring. However, the(More)
BACKGROUND Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) is an essential enzyme in DNA synthesis, catalyzing all de novo synthesis of deoxyribonucleotides. The enzyme comprises two dimers, termed R1 and R2, and contains the redox active cysteine residues, Cys462 and Cys225. The reduction of ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides involves the transfer of free radicals.(More)
The three-dimensional structure of the aromatic hydroxylating enzyme naphthalene dioxygenase (NDO) from Pseudomonas sp. NCIB 9816-4 was recently determined. The refinement of the structure together with cyclic averaging showed that in the active site of the enzyme there is electron density for a flat aromatic compound. This compound appears to be an indole(More)