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The failure of CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) to proliferate after T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation in vitro has lead to their classification as naturally anergic. Here we use Tregs expressing a transgenic TCR to show that despite anergy in vitro, Tregs proliferate in response to immunization in vivo. Tregs also proliferate and accumulate locally in(More)
An early reaction of CD4(+) T lymphocytes to Ag is the production of cytokines, notably IL-2. To detect cytokine-dependent responses, naive Ag-specific T cells were stimulated in vivo and the presence of phosphorylated STAT5 molecules was used to identify the cell populations responding to IL-2. Within hours of T cell priming, IL-2-dependent STAT5(More)
IL-2 controls the survival of regulatory T cells (Tregs), but it is unclear whether IL-2 also directly affects Treg suppressive capacity in vivo. We have found that eliminating Bim-dependent apoptosis in IL-2- and CD25-deficient mice restored Treg numbers but failed to cure their lethal autoimmune disease, demonstrating that IL-2-dependent survival and(More)
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) has multiple, sometimes opposing, functions during an inflammatory response. It is a potent inducer of T-cell proliferation and T-helper 1 (Th1) and Th2 effector T-cell differentiation and provides T cells with a long-lasting competitive advantage resulting in the optimal survival and function of memory cells. In a regulatory role, IL-2(More)
Natural regulatory T cells (nTreg) play a central role in the induction and maintenance of immunological tolerance. Experimental transplant models and recent clinical trials demonstrate that nTreg can control alloreactivity. To upgrade Treg-based cell therapies to a selective suppression of undesired immune reactions, only the transfer of Ag-specific nTreg(More)
The common gamma chain cytokines interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-7 are important regulators of T cell homeostasis. Although IL-2 is implicated in the acute phase of the T cell response, IL-7 is important for memory T cell survival. We asked whether regulated responsiveness to these growth factors is determined by temporal expression of the cytokine-specific IL-2(More)
During T-cell priming, cytokines and costimulatory molecules provide important signals that determine the magnitude and quality of the response. Although the functions of defined cytokines and costimulators in the primary T-cell response are well characterized, much less is known about how these factors contribute to memory T-cell development and survival.(More)
To protect the organism against autoimmunity, self-reactive effector/memory T cells (T(E/M)) are controlled by cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic regulatory mechanisms. However, how some T(E/M) cells escape regulation and cause autoimmune disease is currently not understood. Here we show that blocking IL-7 receptor-α (IL-7Rα) with monoclonal antibodies in(More)
Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is a critical survival factor for lymphocytes and recent studies suggest targeting the IL-7/IL-7Rα pathway holds promise for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. Several lines of evidence, genetic as well as functional, indicate an important role for this cytokine in autoimmune inflammation: polymorphisms in the IL-7Rα have been(More)
IL-2 was discovered as a T-cell growth factor that promoted T-cell-dependent immune responses; however, more recent studies suggest that the essential role of IL-2 is to maintain functional Treg and thus control immune responses. These results are leading to new ideas about the potential of IL-2 as a therapeutic strategy in autoimmune diseases. In this(More)