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Endophilin I is a presynaptic protein of unknown function that binds to dynamin, a GTPase that is implicated in endocytosis and recycling of synaptic vesicles. Here we show that endophilin I is essential for the formation of synaptic-like microvesicles (SLMVs) from the plasma membrane. Endophilin I exhibits lysophosphatidic acid acyl transferase (LPAAT)(More)
The carboxyl-terminal Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu (KDEL), or a closely-related sequence, is important for ER localization of both lumenal as well as type II membrane proteins. This sequence functions as a retrieval signal at post-ER compartment(s), but the exact compartment(s) where the retrieval occurs remains unresolved. With an affinity-purified antibody against the(More)
A cholera toxin mutant (CTX-K63) unable to raise cAMP levels was used to study in Vero cells the retrograde transport of the toxin A subunit (CTX-A-K63), which possesses a COOH-terminal KDEL retrieval signal. Microinjected GTP-gamma-S inhibits the internalization as well as Golgi-ER transport of CTX-A-K63. The appearance of CTX-A-K63 in the Golgi induces a(More)
We have analyzed in Paramecium cells the occurrence and intracellular distribution of the high capacity/low affinity calcium-binding proteins, calsequestrin (CS) and calreticulin (CR) using antibodies against CS from rat skeletal muscle and against CR from rat liver, respectively. As revealed by Western blots, a CS-like protein isolated by affinity(More)
The mammalian protein disulphide-isomerase (PDI) family encompasses several highly divergent proteins that are involved in the processing and maturation of secretory proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. These proteins are characterized by the presence of one or more domains of roughly 95-110 amino acids related to the cytoplasmic protein thioredoxin. All(More)
How the occupied KDEL receptor ERD2 is sorted into COPI vesicles for Golgi-to-ER transport is largely unknown. Here, interactions between proteins of the COPI transport machinery occurring during a "wave" of transport of a KDEL ligand were studied in living cells. FRET between CFP and YFP fusion proteins was measured by multifocal multiphoton microscopy and(More)
The A2 chain of cholera toxin (CTX) contains a COOH-terminal Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu (KDEL) sequence. We have, therefore, analyzed by immunofluorescence and by subcellular fractionation in Vero cells whether CTX can used to demonstrate a retrograde transport of KDEL proteins from the Golgi to the ER. Immunofluorescence studies reveal that after a pulse treatment(More)
The microtubule array in neuronal cells undergoes extensive growth, dynamics and rearrangements during neurite outgrowth. While little is known about how these changes are regulated, microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) including tau protein are likely to perform an important role. Tau is one of the MAPs in mammalian brain. When isolated it is usually a(More)
The subcellular localization and corresponding quaternary state of fluorescent labelled cholera toxin were determined at different time points after exposure to living cells by a novel form of fluorescence confocal microscopy. The compartmentalization and locus of separation of the pentameric B subunits (CTB) from the A subunit (CTA) of the toxin were(More)
The protein disulfide isomerase (PDI)-related protein Wind is essential in Drosophila melanogaster, and is required for correct targeting of Pipe, an essential Golgi transmembrane 2-O-sulfotransferase. Apart from a thioredoxin fold domain present in all PDI proteins, Wind also has a unique C-terminal D-domain found only in PDI-D proteins. Here, we show that(More)