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The intestinal epithelium is the most rapidly self-renewing tissue in adult mammals. It is currently believed that four to six crypt stem cells reside at the +4 position immediately above the Paneth cells in the small intestine; colon stem cells remain undefined. Lgr5 (leucine-rich-repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5, also known as Gpr49) was(More)
A remarkable interdisciplinary effort has unraveled the WNT (Wingless and INT-1) signal transduction cascade over the last two decades. Wnt genes encode small secreted proteins that are found in all animal genomes. Wnt signaling is involved in virtually every aspect of embryonic development and also controls homeostatic self-renewal in a number of adult(More)
The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor protein binds to beta-catenin, a protein recently shown to interact with Tcf and Lef transcription factors. The gene encoding hTcf-4, a Tcf family member that is expressed in colonic epithelium, was cloned and characterized. hTcf-4 transactivates transcription only when associated with beta-catenin.(More)
XTcf-3 is a maternally expressed Xenopus homolog of the mammalian HMG box factors Tcf-1 and Lef-1. The N-terminus of XTcf-3 binds to beta-catenin. Microinjection of XTcf-3 mRNA in embryos results in nuclear translocation of beta-catenin. The beta-catenin-XTcf-3 complex activates transcription in a transient reporter gene assay, while XTcf-3 by itself is(More)
The intestinal epithelium is the most rapidly self-renewing tissue in adult mammals. We have recently demonstrated the presence of about six cycling Lgr5(+) stem cells at the bottoms of small-intestinal crypts. Here we describe the establishment of long-term culture conditions under which single crypts undergo multiple crypt fission events, while(More)
The WNT signal transduction cascade controls myriad biological phenomena throughout development and adult life of all animals. In parallel, aberrant Wnt signaling underlies a wide range of pathologies in humans. In this Review, we provide an update of the core Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, discuss how its various components contribute to disease, and(More)
Inactivation of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor gene initiates colorectal neoplasia. One of the biochemical activities associated with the APC protein is down-regulation of transcriptional activation mediated by beta-catenin and T cell transcription factor 4 (Tcf-4). The protein products of mutant APC genes present in colorectal tumors(More)
The canonical Wnt cascade has emerged as a critical regulator of stem cells. In many tissues, activation of Wnt signalling has also been associated with cancer. This has raised the possibility that the tightly regulated self-renewal mediated by Wnt signalling in stem and progenitor cells is subverted in cancer cells to allow malignant proliferation.(More)
Homeostasis of self-renewing small intestinal crypts results from neutral competition between Lgr5 stem cells, which are small cycling cells located at crypt bottoms. Lgr5 stem cells are interspersed between terminally differentiated Paneth cells that are known to produce bactericidal products such as lysozyme and cryptdins/defensins. Single Lgr5-expressing(More)
Intestinal stem cells, characterized by high Lgr5 expression, reside between Paneth cells at the small intestinal crypt base and divide every day. We have carried out fate mapping of individual stem cells by generating a multicolor Cre-reporter. As a population, Lgr5(hi) stem cells persist life-long, yet crypts drift toward clonality within a period of 1-6(More)