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We describe an efficient way to generate combinatorial libraries of stable, soluble and well-expressed ankyrin repeat (AR) proteins. Using a combination of sequence and structure consensus analyses, we designed a 33 amino acid residue AR module with seven randomized positions having a theoretical diversity of 7.2x10(7). Different numbers of this module were(More)
We present a novel approach to design repeat proteins of the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) family for the generation of libraries of intracellular binding molecules. From an analysis of naturally occurring LRR proteins, we derived the concept to assemble repeat proteins with randomized surface positions from libraries of consensus repeat modules. As a guiding(More)
Repeat proteins, such as ankyrin or leucine-rich repeat proteins, are ubiquitous binding molecules, which occur, unlike antibodies, intra- and extracellularly. Their unique modular architecture features repeating structural units (repeats), which stack together to form elongated repeat domains displaying variable and modular target-binding surfaces. Based(More)
The immunocompetent cells that can recognize foreign structures by their own actively synthesized antigen-binding receptors are the lymphocytes (1). Two major groups of lymphocytes exist, with separate functions and without ability to transform into each other (2, 3). One group is called T lymphocytes, due to their dependence on the presence of the thymus(More)
Anti-idiotypic antibodies made against the antigen-binding receptors of T lymphocytes for a given antigen (Ag-B locus antigens in rats) can be shown to react with IgG antibodies of the same antigen-binding reactivity. Using such anti-idiotypic antibodies, normal Lewis T lymphocytes of B and T type can be visualized by the use of anti-(Lewis-anti-DA)(More)
The eventual aim in the analysis of factors involved in the regulation of the immune response is to link structure with function. The molecules on B lympho-cytes carrying antigen-binding specificity have been found to be more or less "conventional" immunoglobulins (1), the specificity of which are seemingly identical to that of their humoral products, the(More)
Killer T cells with specificity for major histocompatibility antigens have been shown in mice and rats to display idiotypic receptors allowing the lysis of such cells at the effector phase by anti-idiotypic antibodies and complement. A comparison was made between idiotypes displayed by Lyt-1-2+3+ and Lyt-1+2-3- T blasts, generated in the same mixed(More)
Specific immune unresponsiveness against a given set of histocompatibility antigens can be induced by immunization with autologous, antigen-specific T lymphoblasts. Such unresponsiveness can be transferred by lymphoid cells from autoblast-immunized donors to normal syngeneic recipients. The cells being most efficient in transferring the selective(More)