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Whether hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) change with aging has been controversial. Previously, we showed that the HSC compartment in young mice consists of distinct subsets, each with predetermined self-renewal and differentiation behavior. Three classes of HSCs can be distinguished based on their differentiation programs: lymphoid biased, balanced, and(More)
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) display extensive heterogeneity in their behavior even when isolated as phenotypically homogeneous populations. It is not clear whether this heterogeneity reflects inherently diverse subsets of HSCs or a homogeneous population of HSCs diversified by their response to different external stimuli. To address this, we analyzed 97(More)
Most current theories assume that self-renewal and differentiation of hematolymphoid stem cells (HSCs) is randomly regulated by intrinsic and environmental influences. A direct corollary of these tenets is that self-renewal will continuously generate functionally heterogeneous daughter HSCs. Decisions about self-renewal versus commitment are made by(More)
For decades, hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) were thought to be a homogeneous population of cells with flexible behavior. Now a new picture has emerged: The HSC compartment consists of several subpopulations of HSCs each with distinct, preprogrammed differentiation and proliferation behaviors. These programs are epigenetically fixed and are stably(More)
This pap er describes a development system for designing, implementing, and executing biologically motivated cellular automaton simulations. A new object-based programming language that is fund ament al to th e system is discussed in detai l. Use of th e language is illust rated in simple applicat ions. 1. I ntroduction T he simulation and modeling approach(More)
The ability of cells to count and remember their divisions could underlie many alterations that occur during development, aging, and disease. We tracked the cumulative divisional history of slow-cycling hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) throughout adult life. This revealed a fraction of rarely dividing HSCs that contained all the long-term HSC (LT-HSC)(More)
Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a myeloid-specific enzyme that generates hypochlorous acid and other reactive oxygen species. MPO is present at high levels in circulating neutrophils and monocytes but is not detectable in microglia, brain-specific macrophages, in normal brain tissue. However, an earlier study indicated that MPO is present in macrophage-microglia(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW Hematopoietic stem cells are functionally heterogeneous even when isolated as phenotypically homogenous populations. How this heterogeneity is generated is incompletely understood. Several models have been formulated to explain the generation of diversity. All of these assume the existence of a single type of hematopoietic stem cell that(More)
The adult hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) compartment contains a substantial population of lineage-biased (Lin-bi) HSCs. Lin-bi HSCs generate cells of all hematopoietic lineages, albeit with skewed ratios of lymphoid to myeloid cells. The biased ratios are stable through serial transplantation, demonstrating that lineage bias is an inherent function of the(More)
Previously we reported that the size of the stem cell compartment (measured as LTC-IC) is 11-fold greater in DBA/2 than in C57BL/6 mice, and we identified genes that regulate the size of the stem cell pool. To determine whether stem cell intrinsic or extrinsic events account for these differences, we created chimeras by aggregating morulae from the strains(More)