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We introduce the notion of the burden of a partial type in a complete first-order theory and call a theory strong if all types have almost finite burden. In a simple theory it is the supremum of the weights of all extensions of the type, and a simple theory is strong if and only if all types have finite weight. A theory without the independence property is(More)
Changes in colony morphology were associated with the degeneration of solvent-producing strains of Clostridium acetobutylicum. The most efficient solvent-producing strains gave rise exclusively to colonies with dense centers containing large numbers of spores. Many outgrowths of various morphologies developed from the perimeter of such colonies after(More)
Resting cells of Micrococcus luteus have been shown to remove strontium (Sr) from dilute aqueous solutions of SrCl(2) at pH 7. Loadings of 25 mg of Sr per g of cell dry weight were achieved by cells exposed to a solution containing 50 ppm (mg/liter) of Sr. Sr binding occurred in the absence of nutrients and did not require metabolic activity. Initial(More)
Adler, Howard I. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tenn.), and Alice A. Hardigree. Analysis of a genetic locus controlling cell division and sensitivity to radiation in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 87:720-726. 1964.-Radiation sensitivity in Escherichia coli is under control of genes that are transferred during conjugation between donor and(More)
We introduce the notion of a preindependence relation between subsets of the big model of a complete first-order theory, an abstraction of the properties which numerous concrete notions such as forking, dividing, thorn-forking, thorn-dividing, splitting or finite satisfiability share in all complete theories. We examine the relation between four additional(More)