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The intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes infects dendritic cells (DC) and other APCs and induces potent cell-mediated protective immunity. However, heat-killed bacteria fail to do so. This study explored whether DC differentially respond to live and killed Listeria and how this affects T cell activation. To control for bacterial number, a(More)
We have previously reported that stressed apoptotic tumor cells are more immunogenic in vivo than nonstressed ones. Using confocal microscopy we have confirmed our previous observation that heat-stressed apoptotic 12B1-D1 leukemia cells (BCR-ABL(+)) express HSP60 and HSP72 on their surface. To explore how the immune system distinguishes stressed from(More)
BACKGROUND Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) can cause a wide range of disease, from mild diarrhea to fulminant systemic disease. The incidence of systemic CDI with fatal consequence has increased rapidly in recent years. METHODS Using an ultrasensitive cytotoxicity assay, we measured C. difficile toxin A (TcdA) and C. difficile toxin B (TcdB) in sera(More)
Clostridium difficile is the causative agent of primary and recurrent antibiotic-associated diarrhea and colitis in hospitalized patients. The disease is caused mainly by two exotoxins, TcdA and TcdB, produced by the bacteria. Recurrent C. difficile infection (CDI) constitutes one of the most significant clinical issues of this disease, occurs in more than(More)
The major virulence factors of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) are two large exotoxins A (TcdA) and B (TcdB). However, our understanding of the specific roles of these toxins in CDI is still evolving. It is now accepted that both toxins are enterotoxic and proinflammatory in the human intestine. Both purified TcdA and TcdB are capable of inducing the(More)
We have utilized a free-solution isoelectric focusing technique (FS-IEF) to obtain chaperone-rich cell lysate (CRCL) fractions from clarified tumor homogenates and have previously reported on their vaccinating potential. To better understand the underlying mechanisms as well as to improve on the immunizing efficacy of tumor-derived chaperone complexes, in(More)
Perforin (PFN) delivery of granzymes (Gzm) into the target cell at the immunological synapse is the major pathway for inducing apoptosis of virus-infected cells and tumors. A validated model for how PFN delivers Gzm into the cytosol is still lacking. PFN was originally thought to work by forming pores in the target cell plasma membrane that allow Gzm entry.(More)
Plasma C1 inhibitor (C1INH) is a natural inhibitor of complement and contact system proteases. Heterozygosity for C1INH deficiency results in hereditary angioedema, which is mediated by bradykinin. Treatment with plasma C1INH is effective not only in patients with hereditary angioedema, but also in a variety of other disease models, in which such therapy is(More)
BACKGROUND Major Clostridium difficile virulence factors are the exotoxins TcdA and TcdB. Due to the large size and poor stability of the proteins, the active recombinant TcdA and TcdB have been difficult to produce. RESULTS The toxin genes tcdA and tcdB were amplified by PCR using chromosomal DNA from a toxigenic strain as a template, and cloned into a(More)