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We have previously reported that stressed apoptotic tumor cells are more immunogenic in vivo than nonstressed ones. Using confocal microscopy we have confirmed our previous observation that heat-stressed apoptotic 12B1-D1 leukemia cells (BCR-ABL(+)) express HSP60 and HSP72 on their surface. To explore how the immune system distinguishes stressed from(More)
The major virulence factors of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) are two large exotoxins A (TcdA) and B (TcdB). However, our understanding of the specific roles of these toxins in CDI is still evolving. It is now accepted that both toxins are enterotoxic and proinflammatory in the human intestine. Both purified TcdA and TcdB are capable of inducing the(More)
Immunofluorescence-based assays have been developed to detect and quantitate Cryptosporidium parvum infection in cell culture. Here, we describe a method that tracks and quantifies the early phase of attachment and invasion of C. parvum sporozoites using a fluorescent dye. Newly excysted sporozoites were labeled with the amine-reactive fluorescein probe(More)
 Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a clonal disorder characterized by proliferation of cells that possess the bcr-abl fusion gene resulting in the production of one of two possible chimeric 210-kDa tyrosine kinase proteins. Since these chimeric proteins are expressed only in leukemic cells they have the potential to serve as tumor-specific antigens for(More)
BACKGROUND Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) can cause a wide range of disease, from mild diarrhea to fulminant systemic disease. The incidence of systemic CDI with fatal consequence has increased rapidly in recent years. METHODS Using an ultrasensitive cytotoxicity assay, we measured C. difficile toxin A (TcdA) and C. difficile toxin B (TcdB) in sera(More)
The intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes infects dendritic cells (DC) and other APCs and induces potent cell-mediated protective immunity. However, heat-killed bacteria fail to do so. This study explored whether DC differentially respond to live and killed Listeria and how this affects T cell activation. To control for bacterial number, a(More)
Clostridium difficile is the causative agent of primary and recurrent antibiotic-associated diarrhea and colitis in hospitalized patients. The disease is caused mainly by two exotoxins, TcdA and TcdB, produced by the bacteria. Recurrent C. difficile infection (CDI) constitutes one of the most significant clinical issues of this disease, occurs in more than(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) are the antigen-presenting cells capable of activating naïve T cells. Although CD4+ T cells are crucial for Cryptosporidium parvum clearance, little is known about the role of DCs in the immune response to this parasite. In this study, the interaction between mouse DCs and C. parvum was investigated both in vitro and in vivo. For in(More)
Infection of children with Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is the leading cause of hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). Stx2, one of two toxins liberated by the bacteria, is directly linked with HUS. We have previously shown that Stx2-specific human monoclonal antibodies (HuMAbs) protect mice and piglets from fatal systemic complications of(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD) is the leading cause of nosocomial diarrhea in the United States. C difficile toxins TcdA and TcdB breach the intestinal barrier and trigger mucosal inflammation and intestinal damage. The inflammasome is an intracellular danger sensor of the innate immune system. In the present study, we(More)