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The cadmium content of human cancellous bone was related to age, sex, bone loss, physical properties, and elemental composition. Bone specimens from the anterior iliac crest were collected from 889 cadavers with a normal mineral status, and from 50 cadavers which had bone loss from chronic diseases and immobilization. The element concentrations were(More)
Recently, wavelet analysis has gained an established role in signal and image processing applications. In this paper, we present a discrete wavelet transform algorithm based on the lifting scheme. The Haar wavelet transformed and decimated signals are lifted by the ladder-type network. A unique lifting filter is designed for in-place computation. The(More)
Fractional delay filters (FDFs) have a key role in communication systems. FDFs produce a delay that is a fraction of the sampling period. In this letter, we introduce a framework based on the B-spline interpolation and decimation procedure for design of the FDFs. The method generates precise fractional delays and is easy to implement in microprocessor and(More)
Linear interpolation has been adapted in many signal and image processing applications due to its simple implementation and low computational cost. In standard linear interpolation the kernel is the second order B-spline   2 β t. In this work we show that the interpolation error can be remarkably diminished by using the time-shifted B-spline   2 β t-Δ(More)
The fasciculus retroflexus (FR) fiber bundle comprises the intense cholinergic projection from the medial division of the habenula nucleus (Hbn) of the epithalamus to the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN) of the limbic midbrain. Due to the widespread connections of the Hbn and IPN, it could be surmised that the FR is integrated in the processings of various(More)
Duplicate cancellous bone samples from the iliac crest were obtained from autopsies of 88 persons with a normal mineral status and 50 having osteoporotic change due to chronic immobilizing diseases. The following parameters were determined: the minimal density with gamma-ray attenuation, the compressive strength with a strain transducer, the concentrations(More)
To find out whether the changes in the brain histaminergic system are involved in the pathophysiology of portal-systemic encephalopathy, we examined the effects of histamine H(1) receptor blockade on spontaneous locomotor activity, feeding, and circadian rhythmicity in rats with portacaval anastomosis (PCA). Pyrilamine, an H(1) receptor blocker (15(More)
In many areas of science and technology, the measurement of impulse trains is an important sampling scheme. For example, wireless data transmission has grown enormously due to the recent developments in ultra wide band technology, where the information is represented as impulse trains. In this letter, we present a new approach for sampling of the impulse(More)
The iron content was studied in the epiphytic lichens Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. and Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf, in the terricolous lichens Cladina sp. and Peltigera aphthosa (L.) Willd., and in pine bark collected from 31 sites in Finland. There appeared to be differences between lichen species, epiphytes having generally higher concentrations.(More)