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Duplicate cancellous bone samples from the iliac crest were obtained from autopsies of 88 persons with a normal mineral status and 50 having osteoporotic change due to chronic immobilizing diseases. The following parameters were determined: the minimal density with gamma-ray attenuation, the compressive strength with a strain transducer, the concentrations(More)
The cadmium content of human cancellous bone was related to age, sex, bone loss, physical properties, and elemental composition. Bone specimens from the anterior iliac crest were collected from 889 cadavers with a normal mineral status, and from 50 cadavers which had bone loss from chronic diseases and immobilization. The element concentrations were(More)
Recently, wavelet analysis has gained an established role in signal and image processing applications. In this paper, we present a discrete wavelet transform algorithm based on the lifting scheme. The Haar wavelet transformed and decimated signals are lifted by the ladder-type network. A unique lifting filter is designed for in-place computation. The(More)
Fractional delay filters (FDFs) have a key role in communication systems. FDFs produce a delay that is a fraction of the sampling period. In this letter, we introduce a framework based on the B-spline interpolation and decimation procedure for design of the FDFs. The method generates precise fractional delays and is easy to implement in microprocessor and(More)
The effect of drinking water fluoridation on the fluoride content of human bone, on cancellous bone strength and on the mineral density of bone was studied by analysing 158 autopsy samples of the anterior iliac crest from persons from two different areas. In the samples from the town of Kuopio, where drinking water has been fluoridated since 1959, the(More)
Linear interpolation has been adapted in many signal and image processing applications due to its simple implementation and low computational cost. In standard linear interpolation the kernel is the second order B-spline   2 β t. In this work we show that the interpolation error can be remarkably diminished by using the time-shifted B-spline   2 β t-Δ(More)
The placental blood flow was assessed by the 99mTc accumulation method in 10 normal pregnancies in the left lateral recumbent position accomplished by a 15 degree wedge and in the supine position. The postural change caused a 17% decrease in the mean placental accumulation rate, which was not statistically significant. Ten patients were moved from the left(More)
A portable microcomputer-assisted flow transducer was developed for analysing puff parameters during smoking of low- and medium-tar cigarettes. Smoke flow was determined by measuring pressure difference between two sites within an orifice flowmeter. According to the Bernoulli equation, the pressure difference is proportional to the square of flow. For(More)
The effect of clodronate on healing of the fracture of osteopenic bone was studied in rats. A total of 165 female rats (14 +/- 1 weeks, 216 +/- 2 g) were divided into five fracture groups (n = 30), and a neurectomized group (n = 15). Osteopenia (op) was induced by right sciatic neurectomy 4 weeks before the fracture. Nonosteopenic (nop) rats were not(More)