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OBJECTIVE To examine the effect of first and/or second trimester vaginal bleeding on pregnancy outcome. DESIGN A prospective one-year birth cohort. SETTING Two northernmost administrative districts of Finland. PATIENTS 8718 singleton pregnancies, of whom 807 (9.3%) reported bleeding during the first (601) and/or second trimester (206); light bleeding(More)
BACKGROUND High levels of stress have been shown to predict the onset of asthma in children genetically at risk, and to correlate with higher asthma morbidity. Our study set out to examine whether stressful experiences actually provoke new exacerbations in children who already have asthma. METHODS A group of child patients with verified chronic asthma(More)
Human craniofacial stem cells are recently discovered sources of putative mesenchymal stem cells that hold great promise for autogenic or allogenic cell therapy and tissue engineering. Prior to employing these cells in clinical applications, they must be thoroughly investigated and characterized. In this study, the surface marker expression was investigated(More)
miRNAs have proven to be key regulators of gene expression and are differentially expressed in various diseases, including cancer. Our aim was to identify epigenetically dysregulated genes in prostate cancer. We performed miRNA expression profiling after relieving epigenetic modifications in 6 prostate cancer cell lines and nonmalignant prostate epithelial(More)
The paper introduces new subspace based frequency estimation methods. The techniques are based on estimating the noise or signal subspace from the sample spatial sign autocovariance matrix. The theoretical motivation for the techniques is shown under the white Gaussian noise assumption. A simulation study is performed to demonstrate the robust performance(More)
In a sample from the unselected, general population Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort, 11017 individuals alive at the age of 16 years were studied until the age of 27. The cumulative incidence of early onset schizophrenia until 23 years was higher (1.14%; 9/792) among young persons from the highest social class or class I (determined according to father's(More)
Current and future social factors associated with smoking habits during pregnancy were assessed. Data on maternal smoking, social background and the family's development during the 21 years after delivery were gathered for a prospective longitudinal cohort study of 12,068 pregnant women and their children in Northern Finland in 1966 and for a second birth(More)
The robust estimation of multivariate location and shape is one of the most challenging problems in statistics and crucial in many application areas. The objective is to find highly efficient, robust, computable and affine equivariant location and covariance matrix estimates. In this paper three different concepts of multivariate sign and rank are(More)
Quantification of the impact of exposure to modifiable risk factors on a particular outcome at the population level is a fundamental public health issue. In cohort studies, the population attributable fraction (PAF) is used to assess the proportion of the outcome that is attributable to exposure to certain risk factors in a given population during a certain(More)