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Several studies have shown the opioid antagonist naltrexone to be effective when combined with psychosocial therapies for the treatment of patients who are dependent on alcohol with fixed medication and time (12 weeks). In this study, 121 nonabstinent outpatients with alcohol dependence (DSM-IV) were treated with sessions of cognitive coping skills (N = 67)(More)
BACKGROUND Brain dopamine neurons code rewarding environmental stimuli by releasing endogenous dopamine, a transmission signal that is important for reinforcement learning. Human reward-seeking gambling behavior, and especially pathological gambling, has been presumed to be modulated by brain dopamine. METHODS Striatal dopamine release was studied with(More)
Immunohistochemical analysis documented the presence of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-containing fibers and GABA-containing chromaffin cells in canine adrenal glands. A dense network of fibers was visualized at the boundary between medullary and cortical cells, and, in the medullary tissue, GABA-containing fibers surrounded chromaffin cells. Some of these(More)
The diazepam-binding inhibitor (DBI; also called acyl coenzyme A-binding protein or endozepine) is a 10-kDa polypeptide found in organisms ranging from yeasts to mammals. It has been shown that DBI and its processing products are involved in various specific biological processes such as GABAA/benzodiazepine receptor modulation, acyl coenzyme A metabolism,(More)
OBJECTIVE The performance of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) in screening for heavy drinking among the elderly has been unsatisfactory. The aim of the present study was to determine whether tailoring the cut point improves the performance of the AUDIT and its derivatives in this age group. METHODS From a stratified random sample of(More)
Using a sensitive histofluorescence staining method that allows for a quantitation of neuronal death, we compared the protective effects of gangliosides (a group of naturally occurring glycosphingolipids), phencyclidine (PCP), and MK-801 (dibenzocyclohepteneimine) on glutamate- and kainate-induced neuronal death in primary cultures of cortical and(More)
Urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) has been reported to serve as a sensitive biomarker of oxidative DNA damage and also of oxidative stress. We have investigated oxidative DNA damage in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) by urinary 8-OHdG assessments. We determined the total urinary excretion of 8-OHdG from 24 h urine(More)
L-Glutamic, L-aspartic acids and a number of their structural analogs, including quisqualic, kainic, ibotenic, quinolinic, and N-methyl-D-aspartic (NMDA) acids, increase inositol phospholipid hydrolysis when added to primary cultures of cerebellar granule cells, as is reflected by an enhanced formation of 3H-inositolmonophosphate (3H-IP1) in the presence of(More)
The circadian variation in the expression of Fos protein(s) in the rat brain was studied immunohistochemically. The number of Fos-immunoreactive nuclei was statistically increased in the hippocampus and caudate putamen after the onset of darkness. Unlike the cells of the hippocampus and putamen the cells in the suprachiasmatic nucleus displayed a circadian(More)
In the present study, alcohol consumption was estimated in a population survey in Pitkäranta in the Republic of Karelia, Russia (RUS) and in the neighbouring province of North Karelia in Finland (FIN) in the spring of 1997 in connection with the National FINRISK Study. Alcohol consumption was evaluated by self-report and by the biological markers(More)