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BACKGROUND Brain dopamine neurons code rewarding environmental stimuli by releasing endogenous dopamine, a transmission signal that is important for reinforcement learning. Human reward-seeking gambling behavior, and especially pathological gambling, has been presumed to be modulated by brain dopamine. METHODS Striatal dopamine release was studied with(More)
The circadian variation in the expression of Fos protein(s) in the rat brain was studied immunohistochemically. The number of Fos-immunoreactive nuclei was statistically increased in the hippocampus and caudate putamen after the onset of darkness. Unlike the cells of the hippocampus and putamen the cells in the suprachiasmatic nucleus displayed a circadian(More)
Immunohistochemical analysis documented the presence of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-containing fibers and GABA-containing chromaffin cells in canine adrenal glands. A dense network of fibers was visualized at the boundary between medullary and cortical cells, and, in the medullary tissue, GABA-containing fibers surrounded chromaffin cells. Some of these(More)
We studied the effects of neonatal administration of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) upon gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and noradrenergic neurotransmission in the developing rat brain. After 6-OHDA administration tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunolabelling revealed more than 70% loss of catecholaminergic terminals in cortex. Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)(More)
Using a sensitive histofluorescence staining method that allows for a quantitation of neuronal death, we compared the protective effects of gangliosides (a group of naturally occurring glycosphingolipids), phencyclidine (PCP), and MK-801 (dibenzocyclohepteneimine) on glutamate- and kainate-induced neuronal death in primary cultures of cortical and(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of the study was to evaluate possible new treatments for major depressive disorder in patients with comorbid alcohol dependence in a municipal alcohol treatment unit. The efficacy of memantine, a noncompetitive glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-receptor blocker used for the treatment of moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease, was(More)
L-Glutamate, the natural agonist of quisqualate- and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-sensitive excitatory amino acid receptors, elicits a rapid, transient, dose-dependent increase of the steady state level of c-fos mRNA followed by an accumulation of c-fos protein immunostaining in cell nuclei. This induction is prevented by 2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate, an(More)
The stimulation of inositol phospholipid (PI) hydrolysis by excitatory amino acids was measured in the rat hippocampus or striatum after 3 different chemical or surgical lesions of putative glutamatergic pathways. Intrahippocampal infusions of kainate preferentially destroyed neurons in the CA3-4 areas, denervating the CA1 area of the ipsilateral and(More)
BACKGROUND Both methadone- and buprenorphine-treated opioid-dependent patients frequently show cognitive deficits in attention, working memory, and verbal memory. However, no study has compared these patient groups with each other during early opioid substitution treatment (OST). Therefore, we investigated attention, working memory, and verbal memory of(More)