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Effects of severe lactacidosis were analyzed in vitro by employment of C6 glioma cells and astrocytes from primary culture. The cells were suspended in a physiological medium, which was rendered acidotic by addition of lactic acid in rising concentrations. A pH range of 7.4-4.2 was studied under maintenance of isotonicity and a normal electrolyte(More)
  • Florian Leuthold, Ina Rumiantseva, Hannes Weigt, Till Jeske, Christian von Hirschhausen
  • 2006
This paper compares the results of different pricing systems in the German electricity sector. In particular, we compare a competitive nodal pricing approach to a cost minimization scenario under a uniform price. The model also simulates the effects of increasing offshore wind energy in the North Sea, from the current 0 GW to 8 and 13 GW, respectively. Our(More)
K(+)-induced glial swelling results from an intricate interaction of transport and diffusion processes and metabolic stimulation, with many open questions remaining. Our concept of the major mechanisms involved can be summarized as follows: high extracellular K+ causes a burst-like stimulation of Na+/K+ ATPase and, hence, increases the metabolic demands.(More)
Water level fluctuations in lakes lead to shoreline displacement. The seasonality of flooding or beaching of the littoral area affects nutrient cycling, redox gradients in sediments, and life cycles of aquatic organisms. Despite the ecological importance of water level fluctuations, we still lack a method that assesses water levels in the context of(More)
This paper examines the Hogan-Rosellón-Vogelsang (2007) (HRV) incentive mechanism for transmission expansion, and tests it for different network topologies. This new mechanism is based upon redefining transmission output in terms of point-to-point transactions or financial transmission rights (FTRs) and applies Vogelsang's (2001) incentive-regulation logic(More)
Hydropower reservoirs play an increasingly important role for the global electricity supply. Reservoirs are anthropogenically-dominated ecosystems because hydropower operations induce artificial water level fluctuations (WLF) that exceed natural fluctuations in frequency and amplitude. These WLF have detrimental ecological effects, which can be quantified(More)
Citation: Krysiak FC and Weigt H (2015) The demand side in economic models of energy markets: the challenge of representing consumer behavior. Energy models play an increasing role in the ongoing energy transition processes either as tools for forecasting potential developments or for assessments of policy and market design options. In recent years, these(More)
Natural gas plays an important role in the future development of electricity markets as it is the least emission intensive fossil generation option while additionally providing the needed flexibility in plant operation to deal with intermittent renewable generation. As both the electricity and the natural gas market rely on networks, congestion on one(More)
The overlapping impact of the Emission Trading System (ETS) and renewable energy (RE) deployment targets creates a classic case of interaction effects. Whereas the price interaction is widely recognized and has been thoroughly discussed, the effect of an overlapping instrument on the abatement attributable to an instrument has gained little attention. This(More)