This paper describes an international effort to unify a multimodal behavior generation framework for Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs). We propose a three stage model we call SAIBA where the stages represent intent planning, behavior planning and behavior realization. A Function Markup Language (FML), describing intent without referring to physical… (More)
We describe the attempt to synthesize emotional speech with a concatenative speech synthesizer using a parameter space covering not only f0, duration and amplitude, but also voice quality parameters, spectral energy distribution, harmonics-to-noise ratio , and articulatory precision. The application of these extended parameter set offers the possibility to… (More)
In this paper we address problems of the automatic assignment of speech accompanying gestures and present solutions we have developed and still develop in the IST-project NECA. Special emphasis is put on the presentation of the central repository of information necessary for this assignment: the so called gesticon.
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This paper suggests a syntax for an XML-based language for representing and annotating emotions in technological contexts. In contrast to existing markup languages, where emotion is often represented in an ad-hoc way as part of a specific language, we propose a language aiming to be usable in a wide range of use cases, including corpus annotation as well as… (More)
In this paper an architecture and special purpose markup language for simulated affec-tive face-to-face communication is presented. In systems based on this architecture, users will be able to watch embodied conversational agents interact with each other in virtual locations on the internet. The markup language, or Rich Representation Language (RRL), has… (More)
Working with emotion-related states in technological contexts requires a standard representation format. Based on that premise, the W3C Emotion Incubator group was created to lay the foundations for such a standard. The paper reports on two results of the group's work: a collection of use cases, and the resulting requirements. We compiled a rich collection… (More)
In many cases when technological systems are to operate on emotions and related states, they need to represent these states. Existing representations are limited to application-specific solutions that fall short of representing the full range of concepts that have been identified as relevant in the scientific literature. The present chapter presents a broad… (More)