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This paper describes an international effort to unify a multimodal behavior generation framework for Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs). We propose a three stage model we call SAIBA where the stages represent intent planning, behavior planning and behavior realization. A Function Markup Language (FML), describing intent without referring to physical(More)
In this paper, we describe the Rich Representation Language (RRL) which is used in the NECA system. The NECA system generates interactions between two or more animated characters. The RRL is a formal framework for representing the information that is exchanged at the interfaces between the various NECA systemmodules.
Working with emotion-related states in technological contexts requires a standard representation format. Based on that premise, the W3C Emotion Incubator group was created to lay the foundations for such a standard. The paper reports on two results of the group's work: a collection of use cases, and the resulting requirements. We compiled a rich collection(More)
The aim of this paper are threefold: it explores methods for the detection of affective states in text, it presents the usage of such affective cues in a conversational system and it evaluates its effectiveness in a virtual reality setting. Valence and arousal values, used for generating facial expressions of users' avatars, are also incorporated into the(More)
Modeling intonation, i.e., specifying adequate fundamental frequency (F0) contours, remains a challenging task for speech synthesis systems. This paper discusses the development of a system for phonetically specifying intonation contours for German. It deals with the problem of translating an abstract phonological representation of intonation-namely the(More)
The paper describes an interface between generator and synthesizer of the German language concept-to-speech system VieCtoS. It discusses phenomena in German intonation that depend on the interaction between grammatical dependencies (projection of information structure into syntax) and prosodic context (performance-related modifications to intonation(More)