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This paper describes an international effort to unify a multimodal behavior generation framework for Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs). We propose a three stage model we call SAIBA where the stages represent intent planning, behavior planning and behavior realization. A Function Markup Language (FML), describing intent without referring to physical(More)
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This paper suggests a syntax for an XML-based language for representing and annotating emotions in technological contexts. In contrast to existing markup languages, where emotion is often represented in an ad-hoc way as part of a specific language, we propose a language aiming to be usable in a wide range of use cases, including corpus annotation as well as(More)
Working with emotion-related states in technological contexts requires a standard representation format. Based on that premise, the W3C Emotion Incubator group was created to lay the foundations for such a standard. The paper reports on two results of the group's work: a collection of use cases, and the resulting requirements. We compiled a rich collection(More)
In this paper an architecture and special purpose markup language for simulated affec-tive face-to-face communication is presented. In systems based on this architecture, users will be able to watch embodied conversational agents interact with each other in virtual locations on the internet. The markup language, or Rich Representation Language (RRL), has(More)
The Speech Conductor project aimed at developing a gesture interface for driving (" conducting ") a speech synthesis system. Four real-time gesture controlled synthesis systems have been developed. For the first two systems, the efforts focused on high quality voice source synthesis. These " Baby Synthesizers " are based on formant synthesis and they(More)