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The phylogenetic relationships in an endemic group of Malagasy 'assassin spiders' (Araneae, Archaeidae: Eriauchenius) called the gracilicollis group, are inferred from mitochondrial 12S, 16S and COI DNA sequence data. Archaeid spiders of Madagascar have evolved varying degrees of elongation in the cephalic area. These molecular data support the monophyly of(More)
Eight human subjects pressed a lever on a range of variable-interval schedules for 0.25 cent to 35.0 cent per reinforcement. Herrnstein's hyperbola described seven of the eight subjects' response-rate data well. For all subjects, the y-asymptote of the hyperbola increased with increasing reinforcer magnitude and its reciprocal was a linear function of the(More)
Incorporation of fossils into biogeographic studies can have a profound effect on the conclusions that result, particularly when fossil ranges are nonoverlapping with extant ranges. This is the case in archaeid spiders, where there are known fossils from the Northern Hemisphere, yet all living members are restricted to the Southern Hemisphere. To better(More)
Four human subjects worked on all combinations of five variable-interval schedules and five reinforcer magnitudes ( cent/reinforcer) in each of two phases of the experiment. In one phase the force requirement on the operandum was low (1 or 11 N) and in the other it was high (25 or 146 N). Estimates of Herrnstein's kappa were obtained at each reinforcer(More)
Although Madagascar is an ancient fragment of Gondwana, the majority of taxa studied thus far appear to have reached the island through dispersal from Cenozoic times. Ancient lineages may have experienced a different history compared to more recent Cenozoic arrivals, as such lineages would have encountered geoclimatic shifts over an extended time period.(More)
Incorporation of fossils into biogeographic studies can have a profound effect on the conclusions that result, particularly when fossil ranges are non-overlapping with extant ranges. This is the case in archaeid spiders, where there are known fossils from the Northern Hemisphere, yet all living members are restricted to the Southern Hemisphere. To better(More)
Small animals possess intriguing morphological and behavioral traits that allow them to capture prey, including innovative structural mechanisms that produce ballistic movements by amplifying power [1-6]. Power amplification occurs when an organism produces a relatively high power output by releasing slowly stored energy almost instantaneously, resulting in(More)
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