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Masquerade: Camouflage Without Crypsis
It is shown that two species of caterpillars obtain protection from an avian predator by being misidentified as twigs, indicating that predators misidentify masquerading prey as their models, rather than simply failing to detect them.
How the ladybird got its spots : effects of resource limitation on the honesty of aposematic signals
These results point to physiological linkages between components of aposematism, which are modulated by resource availability and affect the honesty of signals, and females may be more susceptible to resource limitation and more likely to be honest signallers.
The evolution and ecology of masquerade
The limited empirical evidence supporting the idea that masquerade functions to cause misidentification of organisms is discussed, a testable definition of masquerade is provided, and how masquerade evolved and under what ecological conditions is suggested.
Prey community structure affects how predators select for Müllerian mimicry
Owing to slower learning, the model did suffer higher mortality in complex communities when the birds were inexperienced, but in a subsequent generalization test, only birds that had foraged from simple communities selected against inaccurate mimics.
The biology of color
A roadmap of technological advances and key questions for the future of animal coloration research are provided, to identify hitherto unrecognized challenges for this multi- and interdisciplinary field.
Co-mimics have a mutualistic relationship despite unequal defences
It is shown that the relationship between unequally defended species is mutualistic, and selection for accurate signal mimicry is found.
Can't tell the caterpillars from the trees: countershading enhances survival in a woodland
These experiments provide the first demonstration, in an ecologically valid visual context, that shadowing on bodies (such as lepidopteran larvae) provides cues that visually hunting predators use to detect potential prey species, and that countershading counterbalances shadowing to enhance cryptic protection.
Face, body and speech cues independently predict judgments of attractiveness
Abstract Research on human attraction frequently makes use of single-modality stimuli such as neutral-expression facial photographs as proxy indicators of an individual's attractiveness. However, we
Changes in Women’s Facial Skin Color over the Ovulatory Cycle are Not Detectable by the Human Visual System
It is concluded that changes in skin color are not responsible for the effects of the ovulatory cycle on women’s attractiveness and variation in skin redness is unlikely to be detectable by the human visual system.