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Molecular changes that underlie evolutionary changes in behavior and physiology are not well understood. Dauer formation in Caenorhabditis elegans is a temperature-sensitive process controlled through a network of signaling pathways associated with sensory neurons and is potentially an excellent system in which to investigate molecular changes in neuronal(More)
The mechanisms underlying the effects of cannabinoids on cognitive processes are not understood. Here we show that cannabinoid type-1 receptors (CB1Rs) control hippocampal synaptic plasticity and spatial memory through the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels that underlie the h-current (Ih), a key regulator of dendritic(More)
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is found in a wide range of vertebrate tissues, including the nervous system. In general, GnRH has two functions: endocrine, acting as a releasing hormone; and neuromodulatory, affecting neural activity in the peripheral and central nervous system. The best understood population of GnRH cells is that of the(More)
Time-resolved single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy was used to study the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) nucleocapsid protein (NC) chaperone activity compared to that of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) NC protein. HTLV-1 NC contains two zinc fingers, each having a CCHC binding motif similar to HIV-1 NC. HIV-1 NC is(More)
BACKGROUND Abnormal activation of endochondral bone formation in soft tissues causes significant medical diseases associated with disability and pain. Hyperactive mutations in the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) type 1 receptor ACVR1 lead to fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP), a rare genetic disorder characterized by progressive ossification in(More)
Epilepsy is a complex disorder involving neurological alterations that lead to the pathological development of spontaneous, recurrent seizures. For decades, seizures were thought to be largely repetitive, and had been examined at the macrocircuit level using electrophysiological recordings. However, research mapping the dynamics of large neuronal(More)
The Activin A and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathways are critical regulators of the immune system and of bone formation. Inappropriate activation of these pathways, as in conditions of congenital heterotopic ossification, are thought to activate an osteogenic program in endothelial cells. However, if and how this occurs in human endothelial cells(More)
Mycobacteriophages Cambiare, FlagStaff, and MOOREtheMARYer are newly isolated phages of Mycobacterium smegmatis mc(2) 155 recovered from soil samples in Pittsburgh, PA. All three genomes are closely related to cluster G mycobacteriophages but differ sufficiently in nucleotide sequence and gene content to warrant division of cluster G into several(More)
Ion-exchange chromatography relies on electrostatic interactions between the adsorbent and the adsorbate and is used extensively in protein purification. Conventional ion-exchange chromatography uses ligands that are singly charged and randomly dispersed over the adsorbent, creating a heterogeneous distribution of potential adsorption sites.(More)
the foregut endoderm and the defective expansion of the mid-and hindgut at early somite stages. However, there remains unclear whether or not Sox17 is required for the subsequent development, maturation and maintenance of the endoderm derivatives such as livers and pancreas due to the early embry-onic lethal of Sox17-null mutant embryos before 10.0 dpc.(More)