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The timing and synchronization of postnatal myelination in the human central nervous system (CNS) are complex. We found eight time-related patterns of CNS myelination during the first two postnatal years in autopsied infants. The intensity of myelination was graded in 162 infants with diverse diseases on an ordinal scale of degrees 0-4. The Ayer method for(More)
The engineering of a 3 T human MRI scanner equipped with 300 mT/m gradients - the strongest gradients ever built for an in vivo human MRI scanner - was a major component of the NIH Blueprint Human Connectome Project (HCP). This effort was motivated by the HCP's goal of mapping, as completely as possible, the macroscopic structural connections of the in vivo(More)
Hypoxic-ischemic injury to the periventricular cerebral white matter [periventricular leukomalacia (PVL)] results in cerebral palsy and is the leading cause of brain injury in premature infants. The principal feature of PVL is a chronic disturbance of myelination and suggests that oligodendrocyte (OL) lineage progression is disrupted by ischemic injury. We(More)
This study establishes the sequence of myelination in a population of autopsied infants from birth through the second postnatal year. Myelination was assessed in 62 precisely defined central nervous system (CNS) sites of 162 infants with diverse diseases who were autopsied from 1972 to 1984 at Children's Hospital, Boston. The degree of myelination was(More)
CONTEXT The serotonergic (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) neurons in the medulla oblongata project extensively to autonomic and respiratory nuclei in the brainstem and spinal cord and help regulate homeostatic function. Previously, abnormalities in 5-HT receptor binding in the medullae of infants dying from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) were identified,(More)
The ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) mediates arousal, an essential component of human consciousness. Lesions of the ARAS cause coma, the most severe disorder of consciousness. Because of current methodological limitations, including of postmortem tissue analysis, the neuroanatomic connectivity of the human ARAS is poorly understood. We applied(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The neuroanatomic substrate of cognitive deficits in long-term survivors of prematurity with PVL is poorly understood. The thalamus is critically involved in cognition via extensive interconnections with the cerebral cortex. We hypothesized that the thalamus is atrophic (reduced in volume) in childhood survivors of prematurity with(More)
After completion of neuronal migration to form the cerebral cortex, axons undergo rapid elongation to their intra- and subcortical targets, from midgestation through infancy. We define axonal development in the human parietal white matter in this critical period. Immunocytochemistry and Western blot analysis were performed on 46 normative cases from 20-183(More)
Despite major advances in the long-term survival of premature infants, cognitive deficits occur in 30-50% of very preterm (<32 gestational weeks) survivors. Impaired working memory and attention despite average global intelligence are central to the academic difficulties of the survivors. Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), characterized by periventricular(More)
To delineate the biochemical sequences of myelination in the human brain, we analyzed the protein and lipid composition of white matter in 18 baseline cases ranging in age from midgestation through infancy, the critical period in human myelination when the most rapid changes occur. Three adult cases were used as indices of maturity, and 4 cases with major(More)