Hannah C. Kinney

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This study establishes the sequence of myelination in a population of autopsied infants from birth through the second postnatal year. Myelination was assessed in 62 precisely defined central nervous system (CNS) sites of 162 infants with diverse diseases who were autopsied from 1972 to 1984 at Children's Hospital, Boston. The degree of myelination was(More)
Hypoxic-ischemic injury to the periventricular cerebral white matter [periventricular leukomalacia (PVL)] results in cerebral palsy and is the leading cause of brain injury in premature infants. The principal feature of PVL is a chronic disturbance of myelination and suggests that oligodendrocyte (OL) lineage progression is disrupted by ischemic injury. We(More)
The timing and synchronization of postnatal myelination in the human central nervous system (CNS) are complex. We found eight time-related patterns of CNS myelination during the first two postnatal years in autopsied infants. The intensity of myelination was graded in 162 infants with diverse diseases on an ordinal scale of degrees 0-4. The Ayer method for(More)
The engineering of a 3 T human MRI scanner equipped with 300 mT/m gradients - the strongest gradients ever built for an in vivo human MRI scanner - was a major component of the NIH Blueprint Human Connectome Project (HCP). This effort was motivated by the HCP's goal of mapping, as completely as possible, the macroscopic structural connections of the in vivo(More)
CONTEXT The serotonergic (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) neurons in the medulla oblongata project extensively to autonomic and respiratory nuclei in the brainstem and spinal cord and help regulate homeostatic function. Previously, abnormalities in 5-HT receptor binding in the medullae of infants dying from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) were identified,(More)
The cellular basis of myelin deficits detected by neuroimaging in long-term survivors of periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that oligodendrocyte lineage (OL) cell density is reduced in PVL, thereby contributing to subsequent myelin deficits. Using computer-based methods, we determined OL cell density in(More)
Brain injury in the premature infant, a problem of enormous importance, is associated with a high risk of neurodevelopmental disability. The major type of injury involves cerebral white matter and the principal cellular target is the developing oligodendrocyte. The specific phase of the oligodendroglial lineage affected has been defined from study of both(More)
Neuroimaging studies indicate reduced volumes of certain gray matter regions in survivors of prematurity with periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). We hypothesized that subacute and/or chronic gray matter lesions are increased in incidence and severity in PVL cases compared to non-PVL cases at autopsy. Forty-one cases of premature infants were divided based(More)
Historically the major focus in neonatal neurology has been on brain injury in premature infants born less than 30 gestational weeks. This focus reflects the urgent need to improve the widely recognized poor neurological outcomes that occur in these infants. The most common underlying substrate of cerebral palsy in these premature infants is periventricular(More)
Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), the major substrate of cerebral palsy in survivors of prematurity, is defined as focal periventricular necrosis and diffuse gliosis in immature cerebral white matter. We propose that nitrosative and/or oxidative stress to premyelinating oligodendrocytes complicating cerebral ischemia in the sick premature infant is a key(More)