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Mobile phone access in low and middle-income countries is rapidly expanding and offers an opportunity to leverage limited human resources for health. We conducted a mixed methods evaluation of a cluster-randomized trial exploratory substudy on the impact of a mHealth (mobile phone) support intervention used by community-based peer health workers (PHW) on(More)
IMPORTANCE Leisure-time physical activity has been associated with lower risk of heart-disease and all-cause mortality, but its association with risk of cancer is not well understood. OBJECTIVE To determine the association of leisure-time physical activity with incidence of common types of cancer and whether associations vary by body size and/or smoking.(More)
Settings with limited health care workers are challenging environments for delivery of antiretroviral therapy. One strategy to address this human resource crisis is to task shift through training selected patients as peer health workers (PHWs) to provide care to other individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy. To better understand processes of a(More)
IMPORTANCE The 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans recommended a minimum of 75 vigorous-intensity or 150 moderate-intensity minutes per week (7.5 metabolic-equivalent hours per week) of aerobic activity for substantial health benefit and suggested additional benefits by doing more than double this amount. However, the upper limit of longevity(More)
BACKGROUND Dietary pattern analyses characterizing combinations of food intakes offer conceptual and statistical advantages over food- and nutrient-based analyses of disease risk. However, few studies have examined dietary patterns and pancreatic cancer risk and none focused on the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. We used the Healthy Eating Index 2005(More)
The relationship between sleep and obesity or weight gain in adults, particularly older populations, remains unclear. In a cohort of 83,377 US men and women aged 51-72 years, we prospectively investigated the association between self-reported sleep duration and weight change over an average of 7.5 years of follow-up (1995-2004). Participants were free of(More)
Unprecedented obesity rates are changing the burden of disease worldwide and obesity-related health complications are increasing healthcare costs. In response, researchers, clinicians and public health practitioners are seeking new and effective tools such as the Internet to effect weight loss. This review highlights peer-reviewed literature on randomized(More)
Published studies of physical activity, BMI, and endometrial cancer risk show conflicting results and many do not report on reliability or validity of physical activity questionnaires. We collected physical activity data on 667 incident cases of endometrial cancer and 662 age-matched controls. Interview-administered questionnaires, collecting demographic(More)
PURPOSE Physical inactivity has been associated with higher mortality risk among survivors of colorectal cancer (CRC), but the independent effects of pre- versus postdiagnosis activity are unclear, and the association between watching television (TV) and mortality in survivors of CRC is previously undefined. METHODS We analyzed the associations between(More)
Higher physical activity levels have been associated with a lower risk of developing various cancers and all-cancer mortality, but the impact of pre-diagnosis physical activity on cancer-specific death has not been fully characterized. In the prospective National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study with 293,511 men and women, we studied(More)