Hannah A. Valantine

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BACKGROUND After heart transplantation, 1-year and 5-year survival rates are 79% and 63%, respectively, with rejection, infection, and allograft coronary artery disease accounting for the majority of deaths. Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), an inhibitor of the de novo pathway for purine biosynthesis, decreases rejection in animals and in human renal(More)
BACKGROUND Anticytomegalovirus (CMV) prophylaxis prevents the acute disease but its impact on subclinical infection and allograft outcome is unknown. We sought to determine whether CMV prophylaxis administered for three months after heart transplant would improve patient outcomes. METHODS This prospective cohort study of 66 heart transplant recipients(More)
BACKGROUND Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) is common after heart transplantation. However, the incidence of severe TR and the incidence of symptoms after echocardiographic diagnosis of severe TR have not been documented. The purpose of this study is to determine the incidence of severe TR and its clinical significance in the heart transplant population. (More)
Severe heart failure is associated with a reduction in myocardial beta-adrenergic receptor density and an impaired contractile response to catecholamine stimulation. Metoprolol was administered during a 6-month period to 14 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy to examine its effects on these abnormalities. The mean daily dose of metoprolol for the group was(More)
BACKGROUND Coronary artery disease occurs in an accelerated fashion in the donor heart after heart transplantation (TxCAD), but the cause is poorly understood. The risk of developing TxCAD is increased by cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and decreased by use of calcium blockers. Our group observed that prophylactic administration of ganciclovir early after(More)
BACKGROUND Endomyocardial biopsy is the standard method of monitoring for rejection in recipients of a cardiac transplant. However, this procedure is uncomfortable, and there are risks associated with it. Gene-expression profiling of peripheral-blood specimens has been shown to correlate with the results of an endomyocardial biopsy. METHODS We randomly(More)
BACKGROUND We hypothesized that cytomegalovirus (CMV) may contribute to the vasculopathy observed in cardiac allograft recipients by impairing the endothelial nitric oxide synthase pathway. We focused on asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA, the endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase) as a potential mediator of the adverse vascular effect of CMV. (More)
BACKGROUND The mechanisms underlying cardiac contractile dysfunction after transplantation remain poorly defined. Previous work has revealed that inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is expressed in the rat heterotopic cardiac allograft during rejection; resultant overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) might cause cardiac contractile dysfunction via the(More)
OBJECTIVES We sought to assess the validity of first-year intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) data as a surrogate marker for long-term outcome after heart transplantation. BACKGROUND Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) is a major impediment to long-term graft survival. Intravascular ultrasound is more sensitive than coronary angiography and detects intimal(More)
Endothelial injury plays a central role in the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV). Although the accelerated course of CAV and its localization to the allograft support an important role for the alloimmune response, there is considerable evidence implicating lipoprotein abnormalities, metabolic disturbances, viral(More)