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Normal epithelial cells require matrix attachment for survival, and the ability of tumour cells to survive outside their natural extracellular matrix (ECM) niches is dependent on acquisition of anchorage independence. Although apoptosis is the most rapid mechanism for eliminating cells lacking appropriate ECM attachment, recent reports suggest that(More)
The Akt family of kinases are activated by growth factors and regulate pleiotropic cellular activities. In this study, we provide evidence for isoform-specific positive and negative roles for Akt1 and -2 in regulating growth factor-stimulated phenotypes in breast epithelial cells. Insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) hyperstimulation induced(More)
Activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of cancers. Recently, mutations in the gene encoding the p110alpha catalytic subunit of PI3K (PIK3CA) have been identified in several human cancers. The mutations primarily result in single amino acid substitutions, with >85% of the mutations in(More)
BACKGROUND Proteins that are required for anchorage-independent survival of tumor cells represent attractive targets for therapeutic intervention since this property is believed to be critical for survival of tumor cells displaced from their natural niches. Anchorage-independent survival is induced by growth factor receptor hyperactivation in many cell(More)
The CD8 molecule plays an important role in the differentiation of CD8+ T cells in the thymus and in their normal function in the periphery. CD8 exists on the cell surface in two forms, the alpha alpha homodimer and the alpha beta heterodimer. Recent studies indicate an important role for the CD8 beta chain in thymic development of CD8+ T cells and suggest(More)
Previous studies have shown that CD8 beta plays a role in both enhancing CD8 alpha-associated Lck kinase activity and promoting the development of CD8-lineage T cells. To examine the role of this enhancement in the maturation of CD8-lineage cells, we assessed CD8 alpha-associated Lck kinase activity in both T cell hybridomas and thymocytes of mice(More)
The growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis plays an essential role in the growth and development of the mammary gland. IGF1 and IGF1 receptor (IGF1R) may also play a role in the early transformation of mammary cells. Using a nested case-control design, the association between IGF1R expression in normal breast tissue from benign biopsies(More)
Triple-negative breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease characterized by poor clinical outcomes and a shortage of targeted treatment options. To discover molecular features of triple-negative breast cancer, we performed quantitative proteomics analysis of twenty human-derived breast cell lines and four primary breast tumors to a depth of more than 12,000(More)
Protein tyrosine kinase 6 (PTK6) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase that is highly expressed in Human Epidermal Growth Factor 2+ (Her2+) breast cancers. Overexpression of PTK6 enhances anchorage-independent survival, proliferation, and migration of breast cancer cells. We hypothesized that PTK6 inhibition is an effective strategy to inhibit growth and(More)