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BACKGROUND Teaching the principles of scientific research in a comprehensive way is important at medical and dental schools. In many countries medical and dental training is not complete until the candidate has presented a diploma thesis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the nature, quality, publication pattern and visibility of Finnish medical(More)
IMPORTANCE The role of microbial exposure during early life in the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus is unclear. OBJECTIVE To investigate whether animal contact and other microbial exposures during infancy are associated with the development of preclinical and clinical type 1 diabetes. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A birth cohort of children(More)
BACKGROUND Evidence for the role of food consumption during childhood in the development of β cell autoimmunity is scarce and fragmentary. OBJECTIVE We set out to study the associations of longitudinal food consumption in children with the development of advanced β cell autoimmunity. DESIGN Children with advanced β cell autoimmunity (n = 232) (ie, with(More)
OBJECTIVE This study set out to examine how maternal initial body mass index (BMI) and weight gain during pregnancy associate with advanced beta cell autoimmunity in the offspring. SUBJECTS A population-based birth cohort of 4093 children with increased human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes (T1D) and their mothers were(More)
The aim of the present study was to examine the associations between the maternal intake of fatty acids during pregnancy and the risk of preclinical and clinical type 1 diabetes in the offspring. The study included 4887 children with human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-conferred type 1 diabetes susceptibility born during the years 1997-2004 from the Finnish Type(More)
BACKGROUND Emerging evidence questions current recommendations on the timing of infant feeding for the prevention of childhood allergies. The evidence for asthma is inconclusive. OBJECTIVE We sought to investigate the associations between the duration of breast-feeding and timing of introduction of complementary foods and the development of asthma and(More)
The duration of the period of time during which diet should be recorded for sufficiently accurate results on the usual intake of an individual is an especially challenging issue in prospective studies among children. We set out to describe nutrient intake variability in preschoolers and to determine the number of record days required (D) to estimate intake(More)
BACKGROUND Recently, the bacterial diversity of the intestinal flora and the diversity of various environmental factors during infancy have been linked to the development of allergies in childhood. Food is an important environmental exposure, but the role of food diversity in the development of asthma and allergies in childhood is poorly defined. (More)
Maternal nutrient intake during pregnancy and lactation potentially influences the development of allergic diseases. Cows' milk allergy (CMA) is often the first manifestation of atopic diseases, but the impact of early nutritional influences on CMA has not been explored. The associations between maternal intakes of folate, folic acid and vitamin D during(More)
BACKGROUND The consumption of foods rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids has been proposed to protect against childhood asthma. This study explores the association of food consumption (including cow's milk (CM)-free diet) in early life and the risk of atopic and non-atopic asthma. METHODS Food intake of 182 children with asthma and 728 matched controls(More)