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The pharmacokinetics and metabolism of R-apomorphine were determined in 10 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease after intravenous infusion of 30 micrograms.kg-1 in 15 min. Specifically, emphasis was on enantiomeric interconversion into S-apomorphine and on the formation of apocodeine and isoapocodeine, since these metabolites may interfere with the(More)
A new experimental strategy was applied to determine the concentration-effect relation and the therapeutic window of apomorphine in individual patients with Parkinson's disease. Apomorphine was administered by a stepwise intravenous infusion. The infusion rate was increased by 10 micrograms/kg/h every 20 minutes, up to 100 micrograms/kg/h or less when(More)
A new continuous flow through transport cell is presented. The design is based on a minimisation of contributions of the cell conformation and experimental protocol to the overall transport kinetics. The system is validated by measuring the washout period of methylene blue and apomorphine. Preliminary results on the iontophoretic transport of apomorphine(More)
Genetic approaches using temporal and brain region-specific restricted gene deletions have provided a wealth of insight in the brain regions and temporal aspects underlying spatial and associative learning. However, for locomotion such extensive studies are still scarce. Previous studies demonstrated that Camk2b(-/-) mice, which lack the β isoform of(More)
A single autoradiographical method for light and electron microscopy (LM and EM) is presented. Human skin, containing (3)H-estradiol ((3)H-E2) after an in vitro permeation experiment, was processed via a non-extractive tissue preparation protocol, comprising cryo-fixation, freeze-drying, osmium tetroxide vapor fixation, and Spurr resin embedding. Semithin(More)
This study deals with effects of electrical (current density, frequency and duty cycle) and chemical (buffer pH and ionic strength) conditions on the flux of the octapeptide, 9-desglycinamide, 8-arginine-vasopressin (DGAVP), through dermatomed human skin. A pulsed constant current was applied during iontophoresis. The anode faced the anatomical surface of(More)
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