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CmPP16 from Cucurbita maxima was cloned and the protein was shown to possess properties similar to those of viral movement proteins. CmPP16 messenger RNA (mRNA) is present in phloem tissue, whereas protein appears confined to sieve elements (SE). Microinjection and grafting studies revealed that CmPP16 moves from cell to cell, mediates the transport of(More)
The intestinal microflora, typically equated with bacteria, influences diseases such as obesity and inflammatory bowel disease. Here, we show that the mammalian gut contains a rich fungal community that interacts with the immune system through the innate immune receptor Dectin-1. Mice lacking Dectin-1 exhibited increased susceptibility to chemically induced(More)
Mutations in genes encoding the epsilon, delta, beta and alpha subunits of the end plate acetylcholine (ACh) receptor (AChR) are described and functionally characterized in three slow-channel congenital myasthenic syndrome patients. All three had prolonged end plate currents and AChR channel opening episodes and an end plate myopathy with loss of AChR from(More)
We describe a novel genetic and kinetic defect in a slow-channel congenital myasthenic syndrome. The severely disabled propositus has advanced endplate myopathy, prolonged and biexponentially decaying endplate currents, and prolonged acetylcholine receptor (AChR) channel openings. Genetic analysis reveals the heterozygous mutation alphaV249F in the(More)
We have examined the relationship between brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene expression in the hippocampus and memory retention as well as long-term potentiation of rats. One-way inhibitory avoidance learning was adopted as the behavioural paradigm. Results revealed that brain-derived neurotrophic factor messenger RNA levels in the dentate gyrus of the(More)
Fat-containing tumors of the liver are a heterogeneous group of tumors with characteristic histologic features, variable biologic profiles, and variable imaging findings. Benign liver lesions that contain fat include focal or geographic fatty change (steatosis), pseudolesions due to postoperative packing material (omentum), adenoma, focal nodular(More)
Transfer cells in the nucellar projection of wheat grains at 25 ±3 days after anthesis have been examined using light and electron microscopy. Within the nucellar tissue, a sequential increase in non-polarized wall ingrowth differentiation and cytoplasmic density was evident. Cells located near the pigment strand were the least differentiated. The degree of(More)
It has been suggested that four amino acids which are absolutely conserved in th nsP1 nonstructural proteins encoded by togaviruses and in the homologous proteins encoded by plant viruses in the Sindbis virus (SV) superfamily may constitute a "methyltransferase motif." In the Sindbis virus nsP1 protein (540 amino acids) these four amino acids are(More)
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a disorder of chronic inflammation with increased susceptibility to colorectal cancer. The etiology of IBD is unclear but thought to result from a dysregulated adaptive and innate immune response to microbial products in a genetically susceptible host. Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling induced by intestinal commensal(More)
Primary adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder sometimes causes a diagnostic dilemma because it can be indistinguishable morphologically from adenocarcinoma of colorectal origin secondarily involving the bladder by metastasis or direct extension. It is much less well studied than conventional urothelial carcinoma and colorectal adenocarcinoma because of its(More)