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Nerve growth is regulated by attractive and repulsive factors in the nervous system. Microscopic gradients of Collapsin-1/Semaphorin III/D (Sema III) and myelin-associated glycoprotein trigger repulsive turning responses by growth cones of cultured Xenopus spinal neurons; the repulsion can be converted to attraction by pharmacological activation of the(More)
Many diffusible axon guidance cues and their receptors have been identified recently. These cues are often found to be bifunctional, acting as attractants or repellents under different circumstances. Studies of cytoplasmic signaling mechanisms have led to the notion that the response of a growth cone to a particular guidance cue depends on the internal(More)
Triple whole-cell recordings from simple networks of cultured hippocampal neurons show that Induction of long-term depression at glutamatergic synapses is accompanied by a back propagation of depression to Input synapses on the dendrite of the presynaptic neuron. The depression also propagates laterally to divergent outputs of the presynaptic neuron and to(More)
Accumulated indirect evidence suggests nerve growth-promoting activities for acetylcholinesterase (AChE). To determine unequivocally whether such activities exist, whether they are related to the capacities of this enzyme to hydrolyze acetylcholine and enhance synapse development, and whether they are associated with alternative splicing variants of(More)
Cellulose degradation is essential for the future production of many advanced biofuels. Cellulases from the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei are among the most efficient enzymes for the hydrolysis of cellulosic materials. One of the cellulases from T. reesei, cellobiohydrolase II (CBH2), was studied because of its industrial relevance and proven(More)
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