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Recent advances in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have led to many new promising applications including habitat monitoring and target tracking. However, data communication between nodes consumes a large portion of the total energy consumption of the WSNs. Consequently, data aggregation techniques can greatly help to reduce the energy consumption by(More)
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are a new technology that is expected to be used in the near future due to its cheap cost and data processing ability. However, securing WSNs with traditional cryptographic mechanism is insufficient because of the existing limited resources and the lack of tamper resistant hardware. In this paper, we propose a(More)
Secure group communication is a paradigm that primarily designates one-to-many communication security. The proposed works relevant to secure group communication have predominantly considered the whole network as being a single group managed by a central powerful node capable of supporting heavy communication, computation and storage cost. However, a typical(More)
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are a new technology that is expected to be used increasingly in the near future due to its cheap cost and data processing ability. However, securing WSNs is a complicated issue since the chosen security scheme should offer data security requirements such as data integrity, confidentiality, authentication, and availability(More)
Cryptographic mechanisms alone are insufficient to protect Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), because sensors are deployed for long periods in hostile environments where it is possible for an adversary to physically take over a sensor and obtain access to the cryptographic keys stored in the sensor’s internal memory. Thus, reputation-based trust systems are(More)
Alzaid et al. proposed a forward & backward secure key management scheme in wireless sensor networks for Process Control Systems (PCSs) or Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. The scheme, however, is still vulnerable to an attack called the sandwich attack that can be launched when the adversary captures two sensor nodes at(More)
Process Control Systems (PCSs) or Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems have recently been added to the already wide collection of wireless sensor networks applications. The PCS/SCADA environment is somewhat more amenable to the use of heavy cryptographic mechanisms such as public key cryptography than other sensor application(More)
Eleven patients with polycystic ovarian disease (PCO) were treated by laparoscopic ovarian electrocautery and nine with a long-acting luteinizing hormone releasing agonist (LHRH-A) for 8 weeks. Both groups showed equivalent significant decreases in their 6-h mean values of luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone (T) measured in 25 samples collected every(More)