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17 A novel genome-wide genetics platform is presented in this study, which permits functional 18 interrogation of all point mutations across a viral genome in parallel. Here we generated the first 19 fitness profile of individual point mutations across the influenza virus genome. Critical residues 20 on the viral genome were systematically identified, which(More)
Genetic research on influenza virus biology has been informed in large part by nucleotide variants present in seasonal or pandemic samples, or individual mutants generated in the laboratory, leaving a substantial part of the genome uncharacterized. Here, we have developed a single-nucleotide resolution genetic approach to interrogate the fitness effect of(More)
UNLABELLED Viral proteins often display several functions which require multiple assays to dissect their genetic basis. Here, we describe a systematic approach to screen for loss-of-function mutations that confer a fitness disadvantage under a specified growth condition. Our methodology was achieved by genetically monitoring a mutant library under two(More)
Aging represents an important health issue not only for the individual, but also for society in general. Burdens associated with aging are expanding as longevity increases. This has led to an enhanced focus on issues related to aging and age-related diseases. Until recently, anti-aging endocrine-therapy has been largely limited to hormone-replacement(More)
Optical imaging of nanoscale objects, whether it is based on scattering or fluorescence, is a challenging task due to reduced detection signal-to-noise ratio and contrast at subwavelength dimensions. Here, we report a field-portable fluorescence microscopy platform installed on a smart phone for imaging of individual nanoparticles as well as viruses using a(More)
Viruses often encode proteins with multiple functions due to their compact genomes. Existing approaches to identify functional residues largely rely on sequence conservation analysis. Inferring functional residues from sequence conservation can produce false positives, in which the conserved residues are functionally silent, or false negatives, where(More)
The HIV-1 pandemic is not the result of a static pathogen but a large genetically diverse and dynamic viral population. The virus is characterized by a highly mutable genome rendering efforts to design a universal vaccine a significant challenge and drives the emergence of drug resistant variants upon antiviral pressure. Gaining a comprehensive(More)
UNLABELLED Pairing high-throughput sequencing technologies with high-throughput mutagenesis enables genome-wide investigations of pathogenic organisms. Knowledge of the specific functions of protein domains encoded by the genome of the hepatitis C virus (HCV), a major human pathogen that contributes to liver disease worldwide, remains limited to insight(More)
DNA imaging techniques using optical microscopy have found numerous applications in biology, chemistry and physics and are based on relatively expensive, bulky and complicated set-ups that limit their use to advanced laboratory settings. Here we demonstrate imaging and length quantification of single molecule DNA strands using a compact, lightweight and(More)
Recent discoveries of direct acting antivirals against Hepatitis C virus (HCV) have raised hopes of effective treatment via combination therapies. Yet rapid evolution and high diversity of HCV populations, combined with the reality of suboptimal treatment adherence, make drug resistance a clinical and public health concern. We develop a general model(More)