Learn More
We report the construction of a genetic linkage map of the mouse, consisting entirely of genetic markers that can be rapidly typed by polymerase chain reaction and that show a high degree of polymorphism among inbred laboratory strains. Specifically, the map contains 317 simple sequence length polymorphisms at an average spacing of 4.3 cM and is detectably(More)
The Ca(2+) channel alpha(1A)-subunit is a voltage-gated, pore-forming membrane protein positioned at the intersection of two important lines of research: one exploring the diversity of Ca(2+) channels and their physiological roles, and the other pursuing mechanisms of ataxia, dystonia, epilepsy, and migraine. alpha(1A)-Subunits are thought to support both(More)
T-type Ca(2+) currents have been proposed to be involved in the genesis of spike-and-wave discharges, a sign of absence seizures, but direct evidence in vivo to support this hypothesis has been lacking. To address this question, we generated a null mutation of the alpha(1G) subunit of T-type Ca(2+) channels. The thalamocortical relay neurons of the(More)
Calcium influx through N-type calcium channels mediates synaptic transmission at numerous central synapses and transduces nociceptive information in the spinal dorsal horn. However, the precise role of N-type calcium channels in pain perception is not fully elucidated. To address this issue, we generated and analyzed knockout mice for alpha(1B,) the(More)
Pancreatic beta cells are the source of insulin, which directly lowers blood glucose levels in the body. Our analyses of alpha(1D) gene-knockout (alpha(1D)(-/-)) mice show that the L-type calcium channel, alpha(1D), is required for proper beta cell generation in the postnatal pancreas. Knockout mice were characteristically slightly smaller than their(More)
Rat astrocytes, immunologically competent glial cells of the central nervous system (CNS), released a variety of cytokines after activation. Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated astrocytes produced tumor necrosis factor (TNF) as demonstrated by Northern blot analysis using a mouse TNF probe and by functional assay. Biological activity of rat astrocyte-derived TNF(More)
Elimination of excess climbing fiber (CF)-Purkinje cell synapses during cerebellar development involves a signaling pathway that includes type 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor, Galphaq, and the gamma isoform of protein kinase C. To identify phospholipase C (PLC) isoforms involved in this process, we generated mice deficient in PLCbeta4, one of two major(More)
During development of the cerebral cortex, the invasion of thalamic axons and subsequent differentiation of cortical neurons are tightly coordinated. Here we provide evidence that glutamate neurotransmission triggers a critical signaling mechanism involving the activation of phospholipase C-beta1 (PLC-beta1) by metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs).(More)
A variety of extracellular signals are transduced across the cell membrane by the enzyme phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C-beta (PLC-beta) coupled with guanine-nucleotide-binding G proteins. There are four isoenzymes of PLC-beta, beta1-beta4, but their functions in vivo are not known. Here we investigate the role of PLC-beta1 and PLC-beta4 in the(More)
Membrane bioreactors (MBRs) have been actively employed for municipal and industrial wastewater treatments. So far, membrane fouling and the high cost of membranes are main obstacles for wider application of MBRs. Over the past few years, considerable investigations have been performed to understand MBR fouling in detail and to develop high-flux or low-cost(More)