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The immunostimulatory properties of synthetic CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) have been studied in various mammalian models including humans and mice. However, little was known about effects of CpG ODNs on immune responses of chickens, a common avian species with important economical value in the poultry industry. In the present study, two CpG ODNs, 2006(More)
Ovotransferrin (OTF) is an acute phase protein in chickens, serum levels of which increase in inflammation and infections. To understand the significance of OTF in inflammation, we studied its in vitro effects on HD11 cells, a macrophage cell line, and heterophils isolated from blood using a panel of variables indicative of cellular activation. These(More)
Wild type human influenza viruses do not usually grow well in embryonated hens' eggs, the substrate of choice for the production of inactivated influenza vaccine, and vaccine viruses need to be developed specifically for this purpose. In the event of a pandemic of influenza, vaccine viruses need to be created with utmost speed. At the onset of the current(More)
The campaign of 2009-2010 Northern Hemisphere seasonal vaccination was concurrent with the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Using a hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assay, we evaluated the immunogenicity and cross-reactivity of 2009-2010 inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) in US adult and elderly populations. Vaccination of TIV resulted in a robust boost on(More)
Pseudotype reporter viruses are being used as safe, quantitative, and high-throughput tools for assessing antibody neutralization for many viruses, including influenza. However, characterization of pseudotypes containing influenza hemagglutinin (HA-pseudotypes) is needed before this system is widely adopted for evaluating neutralizing antibodies in sera(More)
Synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) containing unmethylated CpG motifs act as immune adjuvants, improving the response elicited by a coadministered vaccine. Combining CpG ODN with anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA, the licensed human vaccine) increases the speed, magnitude, and avidity of the resultant antibody response. IgG Abs against anthrax protective(More)
To reduce the biothreat posed by anthrax, efforts are under way to improve the protection afforded by vaccination. This work examines the ability of immunostimulatory CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) adsorbed onto cationic polylactide-co-glycolide (PLG) microparticles (CpG ODN-PLG) to accelerate and boost the protective immunity elicited by Anthrax Vaccine(More)
Lipooligosaccharide (LOS) from Moraxella catarrhalis has the potential to elicit bactericidal antibodies against the pathogen. We generated LOS-based conjugate vaccines that elicited bactericidal antibodies in animal models. However, epitopes on the LOS recognized by the functional anti-LOS antibodies remain unidentified. In this study, a mutant strain, D4,(More)
Synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) containing unmethylated CpG motifs act as immune adjuvants, improving the immune response elicited by co-administered vaccines. Combining CpG ODN with anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA, the licensed human vaccine) increased the speed, magnitude and avidity of the resultant anti-anthrax response. The protective activity of(More)
Poultry coccidiosis is the major parasitic disease of poultry and, until now, no recombinant vaccine has been developed. Short oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) containing unmethylated CpG motifs (CpG ODNs) have been shown to be effective immunoprotective agents and vaccine adjuvants in mammalian systems. Their use in poultry to protect against intracellular(More)