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TLR4 is the receptor for LPS and plays a critical role in innate immunity. Stimulation of TLR4 activates proinflammatory pathways and induces cytokine expression in a variety of cell types. Inflammatory pathways are activated in tissues of obese animals and humans and play an important role in obesity-associated insulin resistance. Here we show that(More)
In this study, we aim to determine cellular mechanisms linking nutrient metabolism to the regulation of inflammation and insulin resistance. The nutrient sensors AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and SIRT1 show striking similarities in nutrient sensing and regulation of metabolic pathways. We find that the expression, activity, and signaling of the major(More)
Pre-mRNA splicing requires the function of a number of RNA-dependent ATPases/helicases, yet no three-dimensional structure of any spliceosomal ATPases/helicases is known. The highly conserved DECD-box protein UAP56/Sub2 is an essential splicing factor that is also important for mRNA export. The expected ATPase/helicase activity appears to be essential for(More)
The mammalian retromer complex consists of SNX1, SNX2, Vps26, Vps29 and Vps35, and retrieves lysosomal enzyme receptors from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network. The structure of human Vps26A at 2.1-Å resolution reveals two curved β-sandwich domains connected by a polar core and a flexible linker. Vps26 has an unpredicted structural relationship to(More)
UNC-45/CRO1/She4p (UCS) proteins have variously been proposed to affect the folding, stability, and ATPase activity of myosins. They are the only proteins known to interact directly with the motor domain. To gain more insight into UCS function, we determined the atomic structure of the yeast UCS protein, She4p, at 2.9 Å resolution. We found that 16 helical(More)
Many proinflammatory cytokines and hormones have been demonstrated to be involved in insulin resistance. However, the molecular mechanisms whereby these cytokines and hormones inhibit insulin signaling are not completely understood. We observed that several cytokines and hormones that induce insulin resistance also stimulate SOCS3 expression in 3T3-L1(More)
B52, also known as SRp55, is a member of the Drosophila melanogaster SR protein family, a group of nuclear proteins that are both essential splicing factors and specific splicing regulators. Like most SR proteins, B52 contains two RNA recognition motifs in the N terminus and a C-terminal domain rich in serine-arginine dipeptide repeats. Since B52 is an(More)
In adipocytes, suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)3 deficiency increases insulin-stimulated insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and -2 phosphorylation, IRS-associated phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase activity, and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Moreover, SOCS3 is required for tumor necrosis factor-alpha full inhibition of insulin-stimulated IRS-1 and -2(More)
Obesity is associated with a chronic inflammatory state characterized by adipose tissue macrophage infiltration and inflammation, which contributes to insulin resistance. The cholinergic antiinflammatory pathway, which acts through the macrophage α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR), is important in innate immunity. Here we show that adipose tissue(More)
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) is a nuclear hormone receptor that is critical for adipogenesis and insulin sensitivity. Ligands for PPARgamma include some polyunsaturated fatty acids and prostanoids and the synthetic high affinity antidiabetic agents thiazolidinediones. However, the identity of a biologically relevant(More)