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In Drosophila, plexin A is a functional receptor for semaphorin-1a. Here we show that the human plexin gene family comprises at least nine members in four subfamilies. Plexin-B1 is a receptor for the transmembrane semaphorin Sema4D (CD100), and plexin-C1 is a receptor for the GPI-anchored semaphorin Sema7A (Sema-K1). Secreted (class 3) semaphorins do not(More)
Commissural axons cross the nervous system midline and then turn to grow alongside it, neither recrossing nor projecting back into ventral regions. In Drosophila, the midline repellent Slit prevents recrossing: axons cross once because they are initially unresponsive to Slit, becoming responsive only upon crossing. We show that commissural axons in mammals(More)
Semaphorins are a large family of secreted and transmembrane proteins, several of which are implicated in repulsive axon guidance. Neuropilin (neuropilin-1) was recently identified as a receptor for Collapsin-1/Semaphorin III/D (Sema III). We report the identification of a related protein, neuropilin-2, whose mRNA is expressed by developing neurons in a(More)
Neuropilin-1 and neuropilin-2 show specificity in binding to different class III semaphorins, including Sema III, Sema E, and Sema IV, suggesting that the specificity of action of these semaphorins is dictated by the complement of neuropilins expressed by responsive neurons. In support of this, we show that sympathetic axons coexpress neuropilin-1 and -2,(More)
3D environment modeling and motion planning are two essential tasks for an autonomous mobile robot's outdoor navigation. In order to implement mobile robot large-scale motion planning, an edge-feature-based ICP algorithm is presented to complete 3D scene registration and reconstruction. According to the respective advantages of geometric features and(More)
The Condon approximation is widely applied in molecular and condensed matter spectroscopy and states that electronic transition dipoles are independent of nuclear positions. This approximation is related to the Franck-Condon principle, which in its simplest form holds that electronic transitions are instantaneous on the time scale of nuclear motion. The(More)
Extensive studies on bradykinin-related peptides (BRPs) generated from plasma kininogens in representative species of various vertebrate taxa, have confirmed that many amphibian skin BRPs reflect those present in putative vertebrate predators. For example, the (Val(1), Thr(6))-bradykinin, present in the defensive skin secretions of many ranids and(More)
The cellular and molecular mechanisms that are involved in airway hyper-responsiveness are unclear. Current studies suggest that tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, a cytokine that is produced in considerable quantities in asthmatic airways, may potentially be involved in the development of bronchial hyper-responsiveness by directly altering the contractile(More)
Automatic detection of atrial fibrillation (AF) for AF diagnosis, especially for AF monitoring, is necessarily desirable for clinical therapy. In this study, we proposed a novel method for detection of the transition between AF and sinus rhythm based on RR intervals. First, we obtained the delta RR interval distribution difference curve from the density(More)