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Synchronized low-frequency spontaneous fluctuations of the functional MRI (fMRI) signal have recently been applied to investigate large-scale neuronal networks of the brain in the absence of specific task instructions. However, the underlying neural mechanisms of these fluctuations remain largely unknown. To this end, electrophysiological recordings and(More)
The default mode network (DMN) in humans has been suggested to support a variety of cognitive functions and has been implicated in an array of neuropsychological disorders. However, its function(s) remains poorly understood. We show that rats possess a DMN that is broadly similar to the DMNs of nonhuman primates and humans. Our data suggest that, despite(More)
Synchronized low-frequency spontaneous fluctuations of the functional MRI (fMRI) signal have been shown to be associated with electroencephalography (EEG) power fluctuations in multiple brain networks within predefined frequency bands. However, it remains unclear whether frequency-specific characteristics exist in the resting-state fMRI signal. In this(More)
Experience with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) shows that signal attenuation is consistent with a multicompartmental theory of water diffusion in the brain. The source of this so-called nonexponential behavior is a topic of debate, because the cerebral cortex contains considerable microscopic heterogeneity and is therefore difficult to model. To account(More)
The spatial relationship between a measured fMRI signal and its underlying neuronal activity remains unclear. One obstacle is the localization of neuronal activity; another is the spatial resolution of fMRI. In the present study, high-resolution BOLD and CBV fMRI experiments (voxel size: 156 x 156 x 2000 microm3) were conducted in the rat whisker barrel(More)
Dynamic manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) detects neuronal activity based on the passage of Mn(2+) into active neurons. Because this mechanism is independent of any hemodynamic response, it is potentially ideal for pharmacological studies and was applied to investigate the acute CNS effects of cocaine in the rat. Dose-dependent,(More)
In cerebral blood volume (CBV)-weighted functional MRI (fMRI) employing superparamagnetic contrast agent, iron dose and blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) contamination are two important issues for experimental design and CBV quantification. Both BOLD and CBV-weighted fMRI are based upon the susceptibility effect, to which spin-echo and gradient-echo(More)
Synchronized low-frequency fluctuations in the resting state functional MRI (fMRI) signal have been suggested to be associated with functional connectivity in brain networks. However, the underlying mechanism of this connectivity is still poorly understood, with the synchronized fluctuations could either originate from hemodynamic oscillations or represent(More)
Cerebral blood volume functional magnetic resonance imaging (CBV-fMRI) experiments employing iron oxide contrast agent were conducted in rat whisker barrel cortex at 3 Tesla. Stimuli of constant frequency (12 Hz) but variable duration and intensity were delivered separately using a homemade whisker stimulator. The temporal behavior of CBV-fMRI signals was(More)
Resting-state functional MRI is a powerful tool that is increasingly used as a noninvasive method for investigating whole-brain circuitry and holds great potential as a possible diagnostic for disease. Despite this potential, few resting-state studies have used animal models (of which nonhuman primates represent our best opportunity of understanding complex(More)