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Simple reaction time to a light target may be lengthened when the light is preceded by a noninformative stimulus at the same location. This is known as inhibition of return. Does inhibition of return result if the relation between successive stimuli is defined in terms of color or orientation? Subjects pressed a key when a small square was displayed. In(More)
The separation between stimuli was manipulated in a same-different matching task. In Experiment 1, stimuli were upright Ts and/or Ls, whereas in Experiment 2, they were rotated Ts and/or Ls. In both experiments, mean reaction time (RT) for the same-different judgment did not increase as a function of interletter separation, suggesting either that the time(More)
The negative repetition effect (NRE) refers to a poorer perception of the target in noise-same-as-target than in noise-alternative-target displays. Using the parenthesis as target and noise that are either identical or different in orientation, we tested predictions derived from a feature-specific inhibition model (Bjork & Murray, 1977) that explains the(More)
This paper quantified carbon budget in the past 30 years (1981–2010) and identified the impact of land cover change on carbon dynamics using vegetation integrated simulator for trace gases (VISIT) model. North Korea was converted from carbon sink to source with 10.72 ± 5.18 Tg C yr−1 of net ecosystem production (NEP) in the 1980s, 3.00 ± 7.96 Tg C yr−1 in(More)
Wetland soils have distinctive biogeochemical processes and ecosystem functions. Therefore, knowledge of wetland soils is important for conserving and rehabilitating wetland ecosystems. We investigated soil properties and their spatial variability in a temperate swamp and compared them with those of an adjacent upland within a small-scale watershed in(More)
A carbon flux model, the vegetation integrated simulator for trace gases, was employed to estimate the carbon budgets of vegetation ecosystems in South Korea. The geographic information system was used to prepare the input variables for the model, such as climate, soil, and land-cover data, from reliable national inventories. Model simulation results(More)
This study analyzes change in carbon storage by applying forest growth models and final cutting age to actual and potential forest cover for six major tree species in South Korea. Using National Forest Inventory data, the growth models were developed to estimate mean diameter at breast height, tree height, and number of trees for Pinus densiflora, Pinus(More)
Time courses of the negative repetition effect (NRE), a poorer detection of the target in noise-same-as-target than in noise-alternative-target displays, and its opposite, the positive repetition effect (PRE), were examined. Experiment 1 showed that displays in which a low-contrast target was present with a high-contrast noise produced a larger NRE than did(More)