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Peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs), a group of post-translational enzymes, catalyze the conversion of protein-bound arginine residues to citrulline residues in a calcium ion-dependent manner and are widely distributed in various organs of vertebrates. Although the existence of four isoforms of PAD (types I, II, III, and IV) is reported in rodents, the(More)
We isolated a new clone that showed structural similarities with the rat peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD) types II and III. The full-length cDNA sequence of this novel PAD comprised 1998 bp encoding a sequence for 666 amino acid residues (Mr 74467), a 3'-non-coding region of 115 bp and a 5'-non-coding region of 16 bp. The derived amino acid sequence of the(More)
For plant species with unsequenced genomes, cDNA contigs created by de novo assembly of RNA-Seq reads are used as reference sequences for comparative analysis of RNA-Seq datasets and the detection of differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Redundancies in such contigs are evident in previous RNA-Seq studies, and such redundancies can lead to difficulties in(More)
The motions of myosin filaments actively sliding along suspended actin filaments were studied. By manipulating a double-beam laser tweezers, single actin filaments were suspended between immobilized microbeads. When another beads coated with myosin filaments were dragged to suspended actin filaments, the beads instantly and unidirectionally slid along the(More)
Mature dry seeds contain translatable mRNAs called long-lived mRNAs. Early studies have shown that protein synthesis during the initial phase of seed germination occurs from long-lived mRNAs, without de novo transcription. However, the gene expression systems that generate long-lived mRNAs in seeds are not well understood. To examine the accumulation of(More)
We isolated differentially expressed and dark-responsive genes during flower development and opening in petals of morning glory. Flower opening usually depends on petal expansion and is regulated by both genetic and environmental factors. Flower opening in morning glory (Ipomoea nil) is controlled by the dark/light regime just prior to opening. Opening was(More)
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