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Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) induces diverse biological responses in many types of cells and tissues by activating its specific G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Previously, three cognate LPA GPCRs (LP(A1)/VZG-1/EDG-2, LP(A2)/EDG-4, and LP(A3)/EDG-7) were identified in mammals. By contrast, an unrelated GPCR, PSP24, was reported to be a high affinity LPA(More)
Membrane-bound L-lactate dehydrogenase was freed from the detergent used during purification. The detergent-free enzyme had about one-half the specific activity of the enzyme in 1.0% Tween 80, and was only partially sensitive to the specific antibody. This enzyme was activated about 3-fold with phosphatidylglycerol, cardiolipin, or a mixture of(More)
The distribution and morphology of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in mammalian cells depend on both dynamic and static interactions of ER membrane proteins with microtubules (MTs). Cytoskeleton-linking membrane protein (CLIMP)-63 is exclusively localized in sheet-like ER membranes, typical structures of the rough ER, and plays a pivotal role in the static(More)
The yeast Dsl1 complex, which comprises Dsl1, Tip20, and Sec39/Dsl3, has been shown to participate, as a vesicle-tethering complex, in retrograde trafficking from the Golgi apparatus to the endoplasmic reticulum. Its metazoan counterpart NRZ complex, which comprises NAG, RINT1, and ZW10, is also involved in Golgi-to-ER retrograde transport, but each(More)
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