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—Hybrid main memories composed of DRAM as a cache to scalable non-volatile memories such as phase-change memory (PCM) can provide much larger storage capacity than traditional main memories. A key challenge for enabling high-performance and scalable hybrid memories, though, is efficiently managing the metadata (e.g., tags) for data cached in DRAM at a fine(More)
Phase change memory (PCM) is a promising technology that can offer higher capacity than DRAM. Unfortunately, PCM's access latency and energy are higher than DRAM's and its endurance is lower. Many DRAM‐PCM hybrid memory systems use DRAM as a cache to PCM, to achieve the low access latency and energy, and high endurance of DRAM, while taking advantage of(More)
New phase-change memory (PCM) devices have low-access latencies (like DRAM) and high capacities (i.e., low cost per bit, like Flash). In addition to being able to scale to smaller cell sizes than DRAM, a PCM cell can also store multiple bits per cell (referred to as multilevel cell, or MLC), enabling even greater capacity per bit. However, reading and(More)
Phase change memory (PCM) is a promising alternative to DRAM, though its high latency and energy costs prohibit its adoption as a drop-in DRAM replacement. Hybrid memory systems comprising DRAM and PCM attempt to achieve the low access latencies of DRAM at the large capacities of PCM. However, known solutions neglect to assess the utility of data placed in(More)
Phase change memory (PCM) is a promising memory technology that can offer higher memory capacity than DRAM. Unfortunately, PCM's access latencies and energies are higher than DRAM and its endurance is lower. DRAM-PCM hybrid memory systems use DRAM as a cache to PCM, to achieve the low access latencies and energies, and high endurance of DRAM, while taking(More)
Phase Change Memory (PCM) is a promising alternative to DRAM to achieve high memory capacity at low cost per bit. Adding to its better projected scalability, PCM can also store multiple bits per cell (called multi-level cell, MLC), offering higher bit density. However, MLC requires precise sensing and control of PCM cell resistance, which incur higher(More)
1 Summary Emerging Phase Change Memory PCM technology offers better density over DRAM by its ability to store multiple bits in a single cell. However, MLC PCM exhibits higher access latency and energy compared to single level PCM. The overhead comes from the fine-granularity control of the crystallization process and sensing of the cell that is required to(More)
1 Problem Phase change memory (PCM) is a promising memory technology that can offer higher memory capacity than DRAM. Unfortunately, PCM's access latency and energy are higher than DRAM and its endurance is lower. DRAM-PCM hybrid memory systems [1–4] use DRAM as a cache to PCM to achieve the low access latency and energy, and high endurance of DRAM, while(More)
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