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In 1994, a “Pan-European Programme for Intensive and Continuous Monitoring of Forest Ecosystems” started to contribute to a better understanding of the impact of air pollution, climate change and natural stress factors on forest ecosystems. The programme today counts approximately 760 permanent observation plots including near 500 plots with data on both(More)
In the industrialized world large sums of money are spent on measures to preserve biodiversity by improving environmental quality. This creates a need to evaluate the effectiveness of such measures. In response we devel oped a model, NTM, that links plant biodiversity to abiotic variables that are under human control. These vari ables are: vegetation(More)
In The Netherlands the decline of some phanerogamic species cannot be readily explained from obvious factors such as lowering of the groundwater table, eutrophication or land reclamation. For a number of species the hypothesis was tested that the decline is partly due to air pollution. A two-factor model was made in which decline is accounted for by (a)(More)
New concepts for river management in northwestern Europe are being developed which aim at both flood protection and nature conservation. As a result, methods are required that assess the effect of management activities on the biodiversity of floodplain ecosystems. In this paper, we show that dynamic vegetation models (DVMs) in combination with regional(More)
— Monitoring of natural vegetation succession is essential for optimal management of river floodplains in the Netherlands. As the maximum discharge capacity depends on the hydraulic resistance of vegetation, a key biophysical parameter for floodplain monitoring is vegetation biomass. The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility of mapping(More)
A field experiment was set up in five mature Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stands in the Netherlands in order to study the effects of removal of litter and humus on ectomycorrhizal fungi and vegetation of higher plants, bryophytes, and lichens. Lime was also applied as a countermeasure to the removal of surplus cations. Application of lime did not have(More)
We report on the first results of the HyEco'04 campaign carried out in summer 2004 as a joint activity of a bi-national team of Belgian and Dutch researchers. This integrated approach of assessing the complexity of managed natural ecosystems is a demonstrator case for recent focus of airborne imaging spectroscopy activities on ecotones. The floodplain(More)
This paper describes a new method to derive nitrogen critical loads for vegetation, and its application to The Netherlands. An ‘inverted’ form of the soil chemical model SMART2 was used to estimate atmospheric nitrogen deposition at the critical conditions for 139 terrestrial vegetation types (associations) occurring in northwestern Europe, using an(More)
Forests in the Netherlands are heavily under stress. Recent surveys suggest that about one-third of the forest area in the Netherlands is affected by desiccation. Generally, plant species of moist situations decline, whereas drought tolerant species tend to increase. Besides desiccation, adverse ecological effects of acidification and nitrogen deposition(More)