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Internet coordinate systems embed Round-Trip-Times (RTTs) between Internet nodes into some geometric space so that unmeasured RTTs can be estimated using distance computation in that space. If accurate, such techniques would allow us to predict Internet RTTs without extensive measurements. The published techniques appear to work very well when accuracy is(More)
BACKGROUND Streptococcus suis emerged to cause an unusual outbreak of streptococcal toxic-shock-like syndrome (STSLS) in 2005. The mechanisms involved are unknown. METHODS Clinical, laboratory, and epidemiologic data on patients infected with culture-confirmed S. suis were analyzed. The strain involved in the outbreak, "epidemic" strain ST7, was compared(More)
From mid-July to the end of August 2005, a total of 215 cases of human Streptococcus suis infections, 66 of which were laboratory confirmed, were reported in Sichuan, China. All infections occurred in backyard farmers who were directly exposed to infection during the slaughtering process of pigs that had died of unknown causes or been killed for food(More)
BACKGROUND  Hemorrhagic fever-like illness caused by a novel Bunyavirus, Huaiyangshan virus (HYSV, also known as Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia virus [SFTSV] and Fever, Thrombocytopenia and Leukopenia Syndrome [FTLS]), has recently been described in China. METHODS  Patients with laboratory-confirmed HYSV infection who were admitted to Union Hospital(More)
Round trip times (RTTs) play an important role in Internet measurements. In this paper, we explore some of the ways in which routing policies impact RTTs. In particular, we investigate how routing policies for both intra-and inter-domain routing can naturally give rise to violations of the triangle inequality with respect to RTTs. Triangle Inequality(More)
Epidemiologic investigations showed that 2 of 4 patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) identified in the winter of 2003-2004 were a waitresss at a restaurant in Guangzhou, China, that served palm civets as food and a customer who ate in the restaurant ashort distance from animal cages. All 6 palm civets at the restaurant were positive for(More)
An outbreak of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 emerged in the summer of 2005 in Sichuan Province, and sporadic infections occurred in 4 additional provinces of China. In total, 99 S. suis strains were isolated and analyzed in this study: 88 isolates from human patients and 11 from diseased pigs. We defined 98 of 99 isolates as pulse type I by using(More)
Although many xylanases are widely used in the baking industry, only one glycoside hydrolase family 10 (GH 10) xylanase has previously been reported to be effective in baking. In this study, we compared the effectiveness of two GH 10 xylanases, psychrophilic XynA from Glaciecola mesophila and mesophilic EX1 from Trichoderma pseudokoningii, in bread making.(More)
Four cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) that occurred from December 16, 2003, to January 8, 2004, in the city of Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China, were investigated. Clinical specimens collected from these patients were tested by provincial and national laboratories in China as well as members of the World Health Organization SARS(More)
NETosis, the process wherein neutrophils release highly decondensed chromatin called neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), has gained much attention as an alternative means of killing bacteria. In vivo, NETs are induced by bacteria and pro-inflammatory cytokines. We have reported that peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4), an enzyme that converts Arg or(More)